Investigation of ginkgo biloba leave extracts as corrosion and Oil field microorganism inhibitors
© Chen et al.; licensee Chemistry Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 25 February 2013
Accepted: 25 March 2013
Published: 7 May 2013
Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoaceae), originating from China, now distributes all over the world. Wide application of Ginkgo biloba extracts is determined by the main active substances, flavonoids and terpenoids, which indicates its extracts suitable to be used as an effective corrosion inhibitor. The extracts of Ginkgo biloba leave have been investigated on the corrosion inhibition of Q235A steel with weight loss and potentiodynamic polarisation techniques. The inhibition efficiency of the extracts varies with extract concentration. The extracts inhibit corrosion mainly by adsorption mechanism. Potentiodynamic polarisation studies show that extracts are mixed type inhibitors. The antibacterial activity of the extracts against oil field microorganism (SRB, IB and TGB) was also investigated.
To prove the crude oil recovery, acidification of the low permeable reservoirs is one of the efficient operations, during which hydrochloric acidic fluid is pumped into wells to etch the fracture walls irregularly and create highly conductive channels . While it is also a great challenge for the metal instruments involved in the acidification, and there is a need to improve the resistance properties of the steel against such corrosion in acidic media. Great attention has been paid to prolonging the lifetime, in which the use of corrosion inhibitors is considered as the most effective method against such acid attack [2, 3]. Functional electronegative groups and p-electron in conjugated double or triple bonds, are the major adsorption centers. So the organic compounds, containing heteroatoms, such as sulfur, phosphorus, nitrogen and oxygen, together with aromatic rings, are efficient as corrosion inhibitors [4–7].
Materials and methods
Ginkgo biloba leave were washed and dried under 60°C and was shattered into powder, and the powder was heated with water or alcohol for 4 h. Then a yellow aqueous extract was filtered to yield dry extract after removal of the solvent. The extract yield from the water and alcohol were named as WE and AE, and extraction rate of water and alcohol is 29.8% and 18.7% respectively.
The corrosion tests were performed on Q235A with a composition (in wt.%) C: 0.22, P: 0.045, Si: 0.35, S: 0.05, Mn: 1.40, and Fe balance. The electrolyte solution was 1M HCl, prepared from analytical grade 38% HCl and distilled water. The concentrations of pomegranate husk extract were employed as 10 mg/L, 100 mg/L and 1000 mg/L. All tests have been performed in deaerated solutions and at 60 ± 0.5°C. The gravimetric tests were carried out according to the People’s Republic of China Standard of Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry (Evaluation method for behavior of corrosion inhibitor for produced water of oilfield, SY/T5273-2000) with a few modifications. Each test was done with three specimens at the same time to give reproducible results.
The electrodes were mechanically abraded with a series of emery papers (800 and 1200 grad). Then it was rinsed in acetone and double distilled water before their immersion in experimental solution. Electrochemical measurements were conducted in a conventional three-electrode thermostated cell. The electrode was inserted in Teflon tube and isolated with polyester so that only its section (0.5 cm2) was allowed to contact the aggressive solutions. A platinum disk as counter electrode and standard calomel electrode (SCE) as the reference electrode have been used in the electrochemical studies.
The potentiodynamic curves were recorded using a CS350 system connected to a personal computer. The working electrode was first immersed into the test solution for 60 min to establish a steady state open circuit potential. After measuring the open circuit, potential dynamic polarisation curves were obtained with a scan rate of 0.5 mV/s. Corrosion rates (corrosion current densities) were obtained from the polarisation curves by linear extrapolation of the anodic and cathodic branches of the Tafel plots at points 100 mV more positive and more negative than the corrosion potential (Ecorr).
CS350 electrochemical workstation hardware parameters:
Potentiostat potential control: ± 10 V; Current Control Range: ± 2.0A; Potential control precision: 0.1% × full scale reading ± 1 mV; Current control accuracy: 0.1% × full scale reading; Potential resolution: 10 μV (>100 Hz), 2 μV (< 10 Hz); Current resolution: < 10pA; Potential rise time: < 1 μS (< 10 mA), < 10 μS (< 2A); Auxiliary 24-bit data acquisition-10 KHz, 20bit-1 KHz; Reference electrode input impedance: 1012 ohms || 20pF; Current range 2A- 00 nA, a total of 8 files; Tank pressure: 21V; CV and LSV scan rate: 0.01-20000 mV/s; CA and CC pulse width: 0.0001-1000 s; Potential scan potential incremental: 0.1 mV-1V/mS; SWV frequency: 0.001-100 KHz; DPV and NPV pulse width: 0.0001-1000 s; AD data acquisition: 16 bits-1 MHz, 24bit-100 Hz; Minimum potential increment CV: 0.075 mV.
Viable counts of SRB, TGB and FB were determined according to the Standard of Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry of People’s Republic of China (Method of SY/T 5890–1993, The national method of the bactericidal agent’s performance). The produced water containing the three kinds of bacteria was gathered from Zichang Oilfield Factory, Yanchang Oilfield.
Inhibitor properties and mechanism
Q235A (A3) steel is widely used in the gas and oil field, and it is easily eroded in the presence of high concentration of HCl under high temperature. The use of corrosion inhibitors, such as imidazoline, Mannich base, Schiff base and some other heterocyclic compounds, is considered as the most effective method for the protection against such acid attack, but the concentration and the cost is too high to be accepted.
Tafel polarisation measurements
Potentiodynamic polarization parameters for the corrosion of the Q230A steel in 1M HCl in absence and presence of different concentrations of the extracts
Where Icorr and Icorr(i) are corrosion current densities obtained in the absence and presence of inhibitors, respectively. It can be seen that the corrosion rate is decreased and inhibition efficiency IE (%) is increased by increasing inhibitor concentration . The extract causes changes in the anodic, cathodic Tafel slopes and the Ecorr values in the presence of different concentrations, suggesting that these compounds behave as mixed-type (anodic/cathodic) inhibitors [16–18]. Increasing inhibition efficiencies with increasing concentrations of the extract shows that the inhibition actions are due to its adsorption on the steel surface [19, 20]. The difference in inhibition efficiency between WE and AE may be due to the effect of the high water-soluble part, which includes the glycoside and some polysaccharide. The inhibition efficiencies obtained from potentiodynamic polarization were different from those calculated from weight-loss measurements, which may be attributable to the fact that the weight-loss method gives average corrosion rate, whereas electrochemical method gives instantaneous corrosion rates. These variations may also arise because of the difference in the time required to form an adsorbed layer of inhibitors on metal surface that can inhibit corrosion [21, 22].
Mechanism of corrosion inhibition
electrostatic interaction between the charged molecules and the charged metal;
interaction of unshared electron pairs in the molecule with the metal;
interaction of p-electrons with the metal;
a combination of types (a–c).
Antibacterial activity against oil field microorganism
The antifungal activity of Ginkgo biloba leave extract against oil field MIC
The water and alcohol extracts of Ginkgo biloba leave showed moderate to high effective inhibition in the range 10 to 1,000 mg/L in 1 M HCl at 60°C, and the highest inhibition of 83.2% was obtained by using WE solution of 1,000 mg/L. The extracts mainly inhibit corrosion by adsorption mechanism. Tafel polarisation measurements indicate the extracts behave as mixed type inhibitor. Investigation of the antibacterial activity against oil field microorganism showed the extracts can inhibit SRB, IB and TGB with high efficiency under 1,000 mg/L, which makes extracts potential to be used as bifunctional oil field chemicals.
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