- Open Access
Development of a novel DDS for site-specific PEGylated proteins
© Yoshioka et al 2011
Received: 1 March 2011
Accepted: 12 May 2011
Published: 12 May 2011
Because of the shifted focus in life science research from genome analyses to genetic and protein function analyses, we now know functions of numerous proteins. These analyses, including those of newly identified proteins, are expected to contribute to the identification of proteins of therapeutic value in various diseases. Consequently, pharmacoproteomic-based drug discovery and development of protein therapies attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. Clinical applications of most of these proteins are, however, limited because of their unexpectedly low therapeutic effects, resulting from the proteolytic degradation in vivo followed by rapid removal from the circulatory system. Therefore, frequent administration of excessively high dose of a protein is required to observe its therapeutic effect in vivo. This often results in impaired homeostasis in vivo and leads to severe adverse effects. To overcome these problems, we have devised a method for chemical modification of proteins with polyethylene glycol (PEGylation) and other water-soluble polymers. In addition, we have established a method for creating functional mutant proteins (muteins) with desired properties, and developed a site-specific polymer-conjugation method to further improve their therapeutic potency. In this review, we are introducing our original protein-drug innovation system mentioned above.
The success of the human genome project has clearly shown that the human genome encodes about 35,000 genes and over half of them are poorly understood proteins. A number of these proteins are thought to be related to pathological disorders and other biological phenomena, and thus, are potentially useful as therapeutic agents and as targets for pharmaceutical development. Therefore, focus in life science research has currently shifted to newer fields, such as proteomics and structural genomics, in which the function and structure of proteins are analyzed en masse. Such analyses of large number of proteins, including the newly identified proteins, are expected to contribute to the identification of proteins of therapeutic importance in various diseases. In recent years, protein therapies using cytokines or antibodies have attracted a great deal of attention. Indeed, attempts are currently under progress to develop a wide range of therapeutic proteins for treating various diseases including cancer, hepatitis and autoimmune conditions[1–4]. Unfortunately, clinical applications of many of these proteins are limited because of their unexpectedly poor therapeutic effects[5, 6]. Often these proteins are degraded by various proteases in vivo and rapidly removed from the circulatory system. Consequently, frequent administration of an excessively high dose of a protein is required to obtain its desired therapeutic effect in vivo, leading to a disturbance in the homeostasis and unexpected side effects. Additionally, bioactive proteins, such as cytokines, generally show pleiotropic actions through a number of receptors in vivo, making it difficult to elicit the desired effect without simultaneously triggering undesirable secondary effects. From this standpoint, creation of novel technologies that overcome the problems peculiar to bioactive proteins is essential for the advancement of pharmaco-proteomic-based drug development. These technologies are suitable as Drug Delivery Systems (DDSs), aiming to maximize the therapeutic potency of proteins.
Our laboratory aims to develop novel DDS techniques for overcoming the problems of protein therapy: (i) establishment of a novel polymer-conjugation system to dramatically improve in vivo stability and selectively of bioactive proteins (polymeric DDS) and (ii) development of a powerful system to rapidly create functional mutant proteins (muteins) with enhanced receptor affinity and receptor specificity using a phage display technique (biological DDS). We are currently in the process of combining both approaches to create a protein-drug innovation system to further promote pharmaco-proteomic-based drug development. In this review, we will describe DDS-based technology to create functional mutants for advanced medical applications using the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) as an example and the usefulness of site-specific polymer-conjugation of proteins.
Bioconjugation as a polymeric DDS
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), an antitumor cytokine, has numerous bioactivities including direct cytotoxicity against tumor cells, activation of immune antitumor response, and selective impairment of tumor-blood vessels. Thus, TNF-α has been considered as a novel antitumor agent[13–15]. However, as a systemic antitumor agent, very high doses of TNF-α were required to obtain sufficient clinical responses, because TNF-α is rapidly cleared from the circulation and also because it becomes widely distributed to various tissues following intravenous administration. As a result, TNF-α with pleiotropic in vivo actions exhibited unexpected toxic side-effects, typified by pyrexia and hypertension[16, 17]. Systemic application of TNF-α was, therefore, abandoned despite intratumoral administration of TNF-α showing significant antitumor effects in phase I studies. Similar in vivo drawbacks are also found in the clinical applications of other bioactive proteins. Keeping these problems in mind, we have devised ways to improve the polymer-conjugation system using the TNF-α as a model protein[18–23]. In PEGylation of TNF-α, the specific activity of PEGylated TNF-α decreased with the degree of PEG-modification (i.e., PEG modification rate). Additionally, when the PEG modification rates are same, the bioactivity of PEGylated TNF-α decreased with an increase in the molecular size of the attached PEG. Thus, when bioactive proteins, such as TNF-α, are able to stably express their activities after binding to polymeric macromolecules, proper attention should be paid to minimize the loss in activity arising from the inhibition of their binding to the receptor molecules due to the steric hindrance posed by the polymeric modifier. By assessing the relationship between the molecular weight of PEG attached to TNF-α, degree of modification of PEG-modified TNF-α, and their in vivo antitumor potency, we succeeded in markedly and selectively enhancing the antitumor potency of PEGylated-TNF-α over that of the native TNF-α. Our results suggest that comprehensive analysis of the relationship between the degree of modification by polymer, molecular size, and specific activity could lead to the development of bioconjugated proteins with increased therapeutic value and decreased side effects.
These results suggest that PEGylation is a pragmatic approach for developing successful therapies with drugs, such as enzymes and antitumor agents. We believe that the technique of bioconjugating drugs to a polymeric carrier will indeed be an important technique for expanding the clinical applications of therapeutic proteins. In this context it is noteworthy that in recent years several research laboratories around the world have created similar polymer-conjugated bioactive proteins. As a result, PEGylated granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (PEG-G-CSF; PEG filgrastim), PEGylated interferon-alpha (PEG-IFN; PEGASYS, PEG-Intron), PEGylated asparaginase (PEG-Asp; ONCASPER), PEGylated adenosine deaminase (PEG-ADA; ADAGEN) and polystyrene-co-maleic acid-conjugated neocarzinostatin (SMANCS) have been developed, all of which showed marked improvement in therapeutic efficacy in comparison to their corresponding native forms[24–28].
A new method for site-specific PEGylation
As described above, PEGylation is limited by the frequent substantial loss of protein specific activity associated with polymer-conjugation. In addition, such bioconjugated proteins could also consist of positional isomers of polymeric modifiers at various sites, each one of which may have distinct activity and other characteristics. Random modification could produce a heterogeneous mixture of conjugated proteins, consisting of different number of modifier molecules bound to various sites of the protein. As a result, functional properties of the bioconjugated proteins (such as activation, in vivo behavior, stability) are compromised, and thus, they could exhibit inconsistent therapeutic effects. Therefore, to improve the polymer-conjugation technique in the post-genome era, the pharmaceutical technology would require a method that maintains the present efficiency of polymer modification while simultaneously making the site-specific modification possible. For example, mutant proteins with free cysteine residues were created for modification. However, introduction of cysteine residues led to protein misfolding and aggregation, resulting in unexpected loss of activity. Furthermore, even if it were possible to produce a cysteine mutant that retained activity, the poor efficiency of polymer conjugation to the thiol group made it impossible to obtain the desired product.
In vitro bioactivity of mono-PEGylated forms of TNF-αs
EC50 (ng/ml) (% of remaining activity)
Site-specific polymer-conjugation is possible even for a protein whose N-terminal region plays an essential role in activation by making use of the differences between the reaction patterns of α-Amino Groups and ε-Amino Groups, and this could be achieved by first creating a functional lysine-deficient mutant and then introducing a new lysine residue in an area that is not connected with activation.
Functionalized polymer carriers as DDS
In order to deliver a bioconjugated drug to the targeted tissue, the conjugate must demonstrate desirable pharmacokinetic characteristics, such as plasma clearance and tissue distribution. It is well known that the in vivo pharmacokinetics of polymer-conjugated drugs, such as bioactive proteins, could be markedly influenced by the properties (such as electric charge and hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance) of the polymeric carriers attached to the drug surface[37, 38]. Any increase in the therapeutic effect of a drug bioconjugated with a polymeric modifier could be attributed to the pharmacokinetics of the bioconjugated drug. Therefore, prior to selecting a polymeric modifier for bioconjugation, it is very important to take into consideration the influence of physicochemical characteristics on the pharmacokinetics of the polymer. For example, we have demonstrated that for increased retention in blood, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is overwhelmingly superior to PEG as a polymer carrier.
There is no cure for renal disease, which is a serious problem on the rise world-wide, and very few preventive strategies are available against this disease. Bioactive proteins, such as SOD and IL-10, were thought to be able to prevent the progression of renal disease, but their therapeutic potencies were too low because they were poorly distributed in the kidney. Many researchers have made attempts to deliver drug to the kidney. However, so far, there is no available report on delivery of drugs specifically to the kidney. Development of a renal delivery system that selectively carries drugs to the kidney is a promising way of limiting the tissue distribution of drugs and controlling the drug-associated toxicity. Therefore, PVD may be a new and useful renal-targeting drug carrier, and PVD-SOD conjugate may find clinical applications in the effective treatment of various renal diseases.
In this review, we have demonstrated the usefulness of DDS-based technologies to selectively enhance the desirable therapeutic activities of bioactive proteins without increasing their side effects. Thus, we suggest that, to further promote the clinical applications of bioactive proteins, it is necessary for the protein-drug innovation system to combine 1) a method for creating mutant proteins (muteins) with desired properties and 2) a bioconjugation method that generates conjugated products with optimal properties, such as targeting capability. We believe that this protein-drug innovation system will be a valuable tool for the development of novel protein-based therapies.
This study was supported in part by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan, and from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). This study was also supported in part by Health Labour Sciences Research Grants from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan; by Health Sciences Research Grants for Research on Publicly Essential Drugs and Medical Devices from the Japan Health Sciences Foundation; by a Global Environment Research Fund from Minister of the Environment; and by a the Knowledge Cluster Initiative; and by The Nagai Foundation Tokyo; and by The Takeda Science Foundation.
- Nishimoto N, Kishimoto T: Interleukin 6: from bench to bedside. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol. 2006, 2: 619-626. 10.1038/ncprheum0338.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pastan I, Hassan R, FitzGerald DJ, Kreitman RJ: Immunotoxin treatment of cancer. Annu Rev Med. 2007, 58: 221-237. 10.1146/annurev.med.58.070605.115320.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Szekanecz Z, Kerekes G, Soltesz P: Vascular effects of biologic agents in RA and spondyloarthropathies. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2009, 5: 677-684. 10.1038/nrrheum.2009.219.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Aghemo A, Rumi MG, Colombo M: Pegylated interferons alpha2a and alpha2b in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010, 7: 485-494. 10.1038/nrgastro.2010.101.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kimura K, Taguchi T, Urushizaki I, Ohno R, Abe O, Furue H, Hattori T, Ichihashi H, Inoguchi K, Majima H, et al: Phase I study of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1987, 20: 223-229. 10.1007/BF00570490.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rosenberg SA, Lotze MT, Muul LM, Chang AE, Avis FP, Leitman S, Linehan WM, Robertson CN, Lee RE, Rubin JT, et al: A progress report on the treatment of 157 patients with advanced cancer using lymphokine-activated killer cells and interleukin-2 or high-dose interleukin-2 alone. N Engl J Med. 1987, 316: 889-897. 10.1056/NEJM198704093161501.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yoshioka Y, Tsutsumi Y, Nakagawa S, Mayumi T: Recent progress on tumor missile therapy and tumor vascular targeting therapy as a new approach. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2004, 2: 259-270. 10.2174/1570161043385682.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pasut G, Veronese FM: PEG conjugates in clinical development or use as anticancer agents: an overview. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2009, 61: 1177-1188. 10.1016/j.addr.2009.02.010.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Maeda H: Tumor-selective delivery of macromolecular drugs via the EPR effect: background and future prospects. Bioconjug Chem. 2010, 21: 797-802. 10.1021/bc100070g.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Monkarsh SP, Ma Y, Aglione A, Bailon P, Ciolek D, DeBarbieri B, Graves MC, Hollfelder K, Michel H, Palleroni A, Porter JE, Russoman E, Roy S, Pan YC: Positional isomers of monopegylated interferon alpha-2a: isolation, characterization, and biological activity. Anal Biochem. 1997, 247: 434-440. 10.1006/abio.1997.2128.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bailon P, Palleroni A, Schaffer CA, Spence CL, Fung WJ, Porter JE, Ehrlich GK, Pan W, Xu ZX, Modi MW, Farid A, Berthold W, Graves M: Rational design of a potent, long-lasting form of interferon: a 40 kDa branched polyethylene glycol-conjugated interferon alpha-2a for the treatment of hepatitis C. Bioconjug Chem. 2001, 12: 195-202. 10.1021/bc000082g.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Carswell EA, Old LJ, Kassel RL, Green S, Fiore N, Williamson B: An endotoxin-induced serum factor that causes necrosis of tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1975, 72: 3666-3670. 10.1073/pnas.72.9.3666.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Blick M, Sherwin SA, Rosenblum M, Gutterman J: Phase I study of recombinant tumor necrosis factor in cancer patients. Cancer Res. 1987, 47: 2986-2989.Google Scholar
- Abbruzzese JL, Levin B, Ajani JA, Faintuch JS, Saks S, Patt YZ, Edwards C, Ende K, Gutterman JU: Phase I trial of recombinant human gamma-interferon and recombinant human tumor necrosis factor in patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer. Cancer Res. 1989, 49: 4057-4061.Google Scholar
- Creaven PJ, Plager JE, Dupere S, Huben RP, Takita H, Mittelman A, Proefrock A: Phase I clinical trial of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1987, 20: 137-144.Google Scholar
- Chapman PB, Lester TJ, Casper ES, Gabrilove JL, Wong GY, Kempin SJ, Gold PJ, Welt S, Warren RS, Starnes HF, et al: Clinical pharmacology of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor in patients with advanced cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1987, 5: 1942-1951.Google Scholar
- Sherman ML, Spriggs DR, Arthur KA, Imamura K, Frei E, Kufe DW: Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor administered as a five-day continuous infusion in cancer patients: phase I toxicity and effects on lipid metabolism. J Clin Oncol. 1988, 6: 344-350.Google Scholar
- Tsutsumi Y, Kihira T, Yamamoto S, Kubo K, Nakagawa S, Miyake M, Horisawa Y, Kanamori T, Ikegami H, Mayumi T: Chemical modification of natural human tumor necrosis factor-alpha with polyethylene glycol increases its anti-tumor potency. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1994, 85: 9-12. 10.1111/j.1349-7006.1994.tb02879.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tsutsumi Y, Kihira T, Tsunoda S, Kubo K, Miyake M, Kanamori T, Nakagawa S, Mayumi T: Intravenous administration of polyethylene glycol-modified tumor necrosis factor-alpha completely regressed solid tumor in Meth-A murine sarcoma model. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1994, 85: 1185-1188. 10.1111/j.1349-7006.1994.tb02926.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tsutsumi Y, Kihira T, Tsunoda S, Kanamori T, Nakagawa S, Mayumi T: Molecular design of hybrid tumour necrosis factor alpha with polyethylene glycol increases its anti-tumour potency. Br J Cancer. 1995, 71: 963-968. 10.1038/bjc.1995.186.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tsutsumi Y, Kihira T, Tsunoda S, Kamada H, Nakagawa S, Kaneda Y, Kanamori T, Mayumi T: Molecular design of hybrid tumor necrosis factor-alpha III: polyethylene glycol-modified tumor necrosis factor-alpha has markedly enhanced antitumor potency due to longer plasma half-life and higher tumor accumulation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996, 278: 1006-1011.Google Scholar
- Tsutsumi Y, Tsunoda S, Kamada H, Kihira T, Nakagawa S, Kaneda Y, Kanamori T, Mayumi T: Molecular design of hybrid tumour necrosis factor-alpha. II: The molecular size of polyethylene glycol-modified tumour necrosis factor-alpha affects its anti-tumour potency. Br J Cancer. 1996, 74: 1090-1095. 10.1038/bjc.1996.495.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tsutsumi Y, Tsunoda S, Kaneda Y, Kamada H, Kihira T, Nakagawa S, Yamamoto Y, Horisawa Y, Mayumi T: In vivo anti-tumor efficacy of polyethylene glycol-modified tumor necrosis factor-alpha against tumor necrosis factor-resistant tumors. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1996, 87: 1078-1085. 10.1111/j.1349-7006.1996.tb03113.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hershfield MS: PEG-ADA replacement therapy for adenosine deaminase deficiency: an update after 8.5 years. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1995, 76: S228-232. 10.1016/S0090-1229(95)90306-2.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chapes SK, Simske SJ, Sonnenfeld G, Miller ES, Zimmerman RJ: Effects of spaceflight and PEG-IL-2 on rat physiological and immunological responses. J Appl Physiol. 1999, 86: 2065-2076.Google Scholar
- Maeda H: SMANCS and polymer-conjugated macromolecular drugs: advantages in cancer chemotherapy. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2001, 46: 169-185. 10.1016/S0169-409X(00)00134-4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Talpaz M, O'Brien S, Rose E, Gupta S, Shan J, Cortes J, Giles FJ, Faderl S, Kantarjian HM: Phase 1 study of polyethylene glycol formulation of interferon alpha-2B (Schering 54031) in Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia. Blood. 2001, 98: 1708-1713. 10.1182/blood.V98.6.1708.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Isidori A, Tani M, Bonifazi F, Zinzani P, Curti A, Motta MR, Rizzi S, Giudice V, Farese O, Rovito M, Alinari L, Conte R, Baccarani M, Lemoli RM: Phase II study of a single pegfilgrastim injection as an adjunct to chemotherapy to mobilize stem cells into the peripheral blood of pretreated lymphoma patients. Haematologica. 2005, 90: 225-231.Google Scholar
- Jones EY, Stuart DI, Walker NP: Structure of tumour necrosis factor. Nature. 1989, 338: 225-228. 10.1038/338225a0.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yamagishi J, Kawashima H, Matsuo N, Ohue M, Yamayoshi M, Fukui T, Kotani H, Furuta R, Nakano K, Yamada M: Mutational analysis of structure--activity relationships in human tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Protein Eng. 1990, 3: 713-719. 10.1093/protein/3.8.713.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Van Ostade X, Tavernier J, Prange T, Fiers W: Localization of the active site of human tumour necrosis factor (hTNF) by mutational analysis. EMBO J. 1991, 10: 827-836.Google Scholar
- Yamamoto Y, Tsutsumi Y, Yoshioka Y, Nishibata T, Kobayashi K, Okamoto T, Mukai Y, Shimizu T, Nakagawa S, Nagata S, Mayumi T: Site-specific PEGylation of a lysine-deficient TNF-alpha with full bioactivity. Nat Biotechnol. 2003, 21: 546-552. 10.1038/nbt812.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shibata H, Yoshioka Y, Ikemizu S, Kobayashi K, Yamamoto Y, Mukai Y, Okamoto T, Taniai M, Kawamura M, Abe Y, Nakagawa S, Hayakawa T, Nagata S, Yamagata Y, Mayumi T, Kamada H, Tsutsumi Y: Functionalization of tumor necrosis factor-alpha using phage display technique and PEGylation improves its antitumor therapeutic window. Clin Cancer Res. 2004, 10: 8293-8300. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-0770.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nielsen UB, Marks JD: Internalizing antibodies and targeted cancer therapy: direct selection from phage display libraries. Pharm Sci Technolo Today. 2000, 3: 282-291. 10.1016/S1461-5347(00)00280-7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ruoslahti E: Targeting tumor vasculature with homing peptides from phage display. Semin Cancer Biol. 2000, 10: 435-442. 10.1006/scbi.2000.0334.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mukai Y, Yoshioka Y, Tsutsumi Y: Phage display and PEGylation of therapeutic proteins. Comb Chem High Throughput Screen. 2005, 8: 145-152. 10.2174/1386207053258578.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kaneda Y, Tsutsumi Y, Yoshioka Y, Kamada H, Yamamoto Y, Kodaira H, Tsunoda S, Okamoto T, Mukai Y, Shibata H, Nakagawa S, Mayumi T: The use of PVP as a polymeric carrier to improve the plasma half-life of drugs. Biomaterials. 2004, 25: 3259-3266. 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2003.10.003.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yoshioka Y, Tsutsumi Y, Ikemizu S, Yamamoto Y, Shibata H, Nishibata T, Mukai Y, Okamoto T, Taniai M, Kawamura M, Abe Y, Nakagawa S, Nagata S, Yamagata Y, Mayumi T: Optimal site-specific PEGylation of mutant TNF-alpha improves its antitumor potency. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004, 315: 808-814. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.01.125.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kamada H, Tsutsumi Y, Yamamoto Y, Kihira T, Kaneda Y, Mu Y, Kodaira H, Tsunoda SI, Nakagawa S, Mayumi T: Antitumor activity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha conjugated with polyvinylpyrrolidone on solid tumors in mice. Cancer Res. 2000, 60: 6416-6420.Google Scholar
- Kamada H, Tsutsumi Y, Sato-Kamada K, Yamamoto Y, Yoshioka Y, Okamoto T, Nakagawa S, Nagata S, Mayumi T: Synthesis of a poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-dimethyl maleic anhydride) co-polymer and its application for renal drug targeting. Nat Biotechnol. 2003, 21: 399-404. 10.1038/nbt798.View ArticleGoogle Scholar