Assessment of inhibitory potential of essential oils on natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production in wheat
© Sumalan et al; licensee Chemistry Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 15 November 2012
Accepted: 2 January 2013
Published: 14 February 2013
In the last years essential oils from different plants were used in the prevention of fungi and mycotoxins accumulation in cereals. The most attractive aspect derived from using of essential oils as seed grains protectants is due to their non-toxicity. This study was focused on assessment the inhibitory effect of some essential oils: Melissa officinalis (O1), Salvia officinalis (O2), Coriandrum sativum (O3), Thymus vulgaris (O4) Mentha piperita (O5) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (O6) against natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production correlated with their antioxidants properties.
All essential oils showed inhibitory effect on fungal contamination of wheat seeds. This ability was dose-dependent. The highest inhibitory effect on Fusarium and Aspergillus fungi was recorded after 5 days of treatment. Fungi such as yeast (Pichia, Saccharomyces and Hyphopichia) were predominantly on seeds mycoflora after 22 days. Each treatment had a selective inhibitory effect on frequency of fungus genera. After 5 days of treatment the most fungicidal effect was recorder for O4, followed by O1. In terms of essential oils effect on mycotoxins development, the best control on fumonisins (FUMO) production was recorded for O6. The antioxidant properties of essential oils decreased in order: O4 > O1 > O6 > O5 > O2 > O3. Also, our data suggested that there is a significant negative correlation between antioxidant properties and seed contamination index (SCI), but there was not recorded a good correlation between antioxidant properties and FUMO content.
Based on proven antifungal and antimycotoxin effects as well as their antioxidant properties, the essential oils could be recommended as natural preservatives for stored cereals. The highest inhibition of fungal growth was noted after 5 days of treatment and decreased after 22 days.
KeywordsEssential oils Wheat Antifungal activity Fusarium mycotoxins Antioxidant properties
Quality assurance and safety of cereals has determined identifying of new alternative ways to preserve the nutritional value of grains. Using of medicinal plants from spontaneous flora in medical and nutritional purposes is practiced from ancient times. In micro-ecological favourable conditions, both on the field before harvest, and especially during storage for longer periods of time in inadequate conditions grains are exposed to fungal contamination, being favourable medium for moulds development. Among them, representatives of the genera Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium are known to have negative impact on the preservation of grains determining quantitative and qualitative losses .
Fusarium moulds have become a serious problem because they produce a range of toxic metabolites (mycotoxins) which endanger the health of both humans and animals. Although Fusarium species are predominantly considered as field fungi, it has been reported that FUMO production can occur post-harvest when storage conditions are inadequate . Fusarium species, F. proliferatum and F. verticillioides are the most prevalent species in freshly harvested corn [3–6]. Fumonisins (FUMO) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are two important Fusarium mycotoxins that have received considerable attention related to food safety. A selected number of F. proliferatum isolates showed FUMO production capability on autoclaved rice seeds . Recent researches have indicated the presence of three forms of FUMO produced by Fusarium species during the post-harvest wheat .
The prevention is the best method for controlling fungi and mycotoxins contamination. Post harvest treatment with antifungal agents has been examined to ensure that control can be achieved . Previously studies tested the effect of food grade antioxidants such as propyl paraben (PP), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluen (BHT) to control Fusarium species and mycotoxins production [4, 5].
Nowadays is emphasized the need to prevent fungal spoilage and mycotoxins accumulation by using of natural substances with fungicidal effects. In other recent study conducted by us it was assessed the potential of natural antioxidants derived from grape seed and pomace as by-products resulted in wine industry .
In the last years essential oils from different plants were used in the prevention of fungi and mycotoxins accumulation in cereals [10–12]. Essential oils, also known as volatile oils, are complex mixtures of volatile constituents biosynthesized by plants, which mainly include terpenes, terpenoids, aromatic and aliphatic constituents, all characterized by low molecular weight . They are a valuable natural source of antioxidants and biologically active compounds. Due their bioactivity in the vapors phase, essential oils could be used as a fumigant for stored cereals protection . The most attractive aspect derived from using of essential oils and/or their constituents as crop protectants is due to their non-toxicity .
The inhibitory effect of medicinal plants on growth rate of Fusarium species has been highlighted [14, 16–19]. The results reported by Bluma et al. have found that antifungal activity was strongly associated with monoterpenic phenols, especially thymol, carvacrol and eugenol, in the oils.
Many previous studies have been carried using essential oils in microbiological media, but only few studies were done in vivo to assess the antifungal effect of essential oils on opportunistic fungi of cereal seeds . From these reasons, we have proposed to evaluate the antifungal and fungicidal effect of essential oils in vivo. In this regard, our study is focused on the assessment of inhibitory potential of essential oils extracted from aromatic and spice plants (Mentha piperita, Melissa officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Coriandrum sativum, Thymus vulgaris and Cinnamomum zeylanicum) against natural mycoflora of wheat seeds and Fusarium mycotoxins production in close correlation with their antioxidant properties. Natural essential oils are expected to be more advantageous than the synthetic agents due to their biodegradability and low toxicity. Considering the previous research suggestions on the fact that the levels of essential oils necessary to inhibit microbial growth are higher in foods than in culture media due the interactions between phenolic compounds and the food matrix, in our study we used the essential oils in the range of 500 and 2000 ppm .
Wheat samples and the essential oils
In this study naturally contaminated wheat grain (cv. Lovrin 34) harvested in 2010 in western part of Romania was used. The main physico-chemical characteristics of wheat grain were: humidity (12.8%), protein (12.5%) and gluten index (22%). The wheat grain samples, natural contaminated with 0.689 ppm FUMO and 0.420 ppm DON were weighed (2000 g) and chemically sterilized so that opportunistic mycoflora to be inactivated. The sterilization has done into sterile flask with hypochlorite solution 1:10 (v/v) followed by washing with distilled water twice. Flasks were shaken and equilibrated for 48 h at 4°C.
Six essential oils were tested for their inhibitory potential on natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production in wheat. These essential oils from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.), garden sage (Salvia officinalis L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.) were obtained from SOLARIS PLANT SRL, Romania.
Chemical reagent and microbiological medium
Commercial ELISA kits for mycotoxins identification were purchased from R-Biopharm: DON R5901, FUMO R5602. The ELISA method validation was carried on reference certificated materials produced by R - Biofarm.
For analysis of natural seeds mycobiota were used potato dextrose agar medium (PDA) - potatoes infusion 20%, dextrose 2% and agar 1.5%, with pH adjusted at 5.6 ± 0.2 and dichloran chloramphenicol peptone agar medium (DCPA) for identification of Fusarium species: peptone 1.5%, KH2PO4 0.1%, MgSO4 0.05%, chloramphenicol 0.01%, dichloran 0.2% in ethanol (w/v), agar 1.5%.
The wheat samples (100 g) were spiked separately with the six essential oils at three levels (500, 1000 and 2000 ppm). The treatment was performed in sterile Petri dishes (Ø=120 mm). The wheat seeds were disposed in a single layer covering the whole surface. All essential oils were diluted previously in ethanol 96% (v/v) so that 1 ml of alcoholic solution ensured a level of 500, 100 and 2000 ppm related to the wheat seeds weight. Also, the control samples were treated with 1 ml ethanol. Distilled water was added to obtain the required aw (0.900). The amount of water was calculated based on moisture adsorption curve of the grains. In order to ethanol evaporation, the dishes were placed at 25°C for 2 hours and periodically mixed. Samples were incubated at 25°C for 22 days and aw of wheat seeds samples were kept at 0.900 by weighing and spraying with sterile water. After 5 and 22 days the samples from each experiment were taken in order to fungi and mycotoxins assessment.
The evaluation and identification of seeds mycobiota
The method used in this study was enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sample preparation and analyzes were conducted according to the instructions outlined in the R-Biopharm kits ELISA. The ground samples (5 g) were extracted with 25 ml of methanol:water 70:30 (v/v) for FUMO analysis or using 100 ml distilled water for DON analysis and shaken in a warring blender at high speed for 20 min. The extract was filtered through a Whatman (Maidstone, UK) filter paper (No. 1). A 1-ml filtrate was diluted at 1:13 for FUMO. For DON the filtered extract was used directly for mycotoxins analysis. Standard solutions and prepared samples (50 μl) were mixed with 50 μl of enzyme conjugate in individual dilution wells. Antibody solution (50 μl) was added and mixed gently by shaking the plate manually and incubate for 10 min. at room temperature. The wells were washed three times with 250 μl distilled water. Substrate (100 μl) was added to each well and incubated for 5 min at room temperature. Stop solution (100 μl) was added to each well and the intensity of the resulting yellow colour was measured at a wavelength of 450 nm using ELISA 96-well plate reader (PR-1100, Bio-Rad Laboratories, USA). The mycotoxin losses were expressed as percentage related to the content registered in control sample.
Total phenols assay
Total phenolic content of essential oils was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method . In order to extract total phenolic compounds from investigated essential oil samples, 1 g essential oil was mixed with 20 ml ethanol/water (70:30, v/v) by sonication at room temperature for 30 min. The mixture was centrifuged (5000 rpm, 10 min) and the supernatant was used for total phenolic analysis. A calibration curve using gallic acid was prepared and the absorbance of the standards and samples were measured at 750 nm using a UV–VIS spectrophotometer (Analytic Jena Specord 205). Results were expressed as μM gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per g essential oil. All determinations were carried out in triplicates and values were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD).
Antioxidant activity (FRAP assay)
The antioxidant activity of essential oils was measured using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay [28, 29]. FRAP values of essential oil samples were performed using the extracts obtained previously for assessing of total phenolic compounds. Ferric to ferrous ion reduction at low pH (3.6 in acetate buffer) produces a colored ferrous-tripyridyltriazine complex. FRAP values are obtained by reading the absorbance changes at 595 nm which are linear over a wide concentration range. FRAP values were expressed as μM Fe2+ equivalents/g essential oil. All determinations were carried out in triplicates and values were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD).
Data were reported as mean ± standard deviation. All analyses were performed in triplicate for each level and type of essential oil. Analysis of variance (ANOVA one-way) and the least significant difference test, in order to compare the mean values of the investigated parameters was carried out to find significant differences between fungus growth on wheat seeds after 5 and after 22 days of treatment. Computations Tukey post-hoc means comparisons and Levene’s test for equal variance was also included. Statistical processing data was performed using the Statistical Analysis System-SAS (Software version 8.1; SAS Institute, Inc.: Cary, NC, USA, 2000) . Simple linear regression analysis performed by Origin 6.0 software was used for establishing of some correlations between investigated parameters.
Impact of essential oils on natural mycoflora
The changes of SCI (%) during storage as effect of treatment with essential oils
96,67 ± 5,77
96,67 ± 5,77ns
100,00 ± 0.00ns
96,67 ± 5,77
43,33 ± 5,77***
100,00 ± 0,00ns
96,67 ± 5,77
20,00 ± 0,00***
100,00 ± 0,00ns
96.67 ± 5.77
0 ± 0.00***
56.67 ± 5.77***
96,67 ± 5,77
36,67 ± 5,77***
100,00 ± 0,00 ns
96,67 ± 5,77
26,67 ± 5,77***
86,67 ± 5,77ns
96.67 ± 5.77
10 ± 0.00***
33.33 ± 5.77***
96,67 ± 5,77
33,33 ± 5,77***
100,00 ± 0.00ns
96,67 ± 5,77
30,00 ± 0,00***
100,00 ± 0,00ns
96.67 ± 5.77
20.00 ± 10.00***
63.33 ± 11.55*
96,67 ± 5,77
36,67 ± 5,77***
100,00 ± 0,00ns
96,67 ± 5,77
33,33 ± 5,77***
100,00 ± 0,00ns
96.67 ± 5.77
20.00 ± 0.00***
93.33 ± 5.77ns
96,67 ± 5,77
33,33 ± 5,77***
100,00 ± 0,00ns
96,67 ± 5,77
30,00 ± 0,00***
100,00 ± 0,00ns
96.67 ± 5.77
26.67 ± 5.77***
83.33 ± 5.77ns
96,67 ± 5,77
36,67 ± 5,77***
66,67 ± 5,77**
96,67 ± 5,77
33,33 ± 5,77***
100,00 ± 0,00ns
96.67 ± 5.77
0.00 ± 0.00***
56.67 ± 5.77***
Examination of samples indicates the important role of essential oils at different concentrations in inhibiting the growth of fungi that are involved in the postharvest spoilage of wheat seeds. Generally, the inhibitory effect exhibited different intensity. Thus, after 5 days of treatment, there was recorded a decreasing in the SCI values both for filamentous fungi and yeasts. The treatments with essential oils to levels of 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm resulted in inhibition of fungal growth relative to control, the inhibition level was dependent on the essential oil type. This finding is in agreement to the results reported by Bluma et al..
The highest inhibitory effect was registered for treatment with O1: SCI was 20.0% for a level of 1000 ppm and 0% for a level of 2000 ppm, relative to the value recorded for control sample (96.67%). The highest inhibition of fungal growth was noticed 5 days after treatment, when the differences was extremely significant (P < 0.001) related to the control. Lemon balm contains as principal component geraniol which showed previously antifungal effects .
The predominant compound of O2 is eucalyptol . Besides this one, borneol, α-pinene and camphor were identified in O2 . At 5 days after treatment with O2, fungal inhibition expressed by SCI was 10% for a level of 2000 ppm while this value became 26.67% for a level of 1000 ppm and 36.67% by using of this essential oil to a level of 500 ppm.
Monoterpenes are the main chemical compounds identified in O3. The essential oil obtained from mature fruits, at the final stage of maturity consists mainly in linalool (69.8-87.54%) which can be developed as a potential fumigant for stored-products protection [35, 36]. By applying of O3 to all levels tested in this study, it was recorded an extremely significant inhibitory effect on fungal growth related to the control (P < 0.001). At 5 days after treatment with O3, SCI values were 33.33% for a level of 500 ppm, 30% for a level of 1000 ppm and 20% for a level of 2000 ppm.
Our results showed that after 5 days of treatment with O4 it was inhibited the growth of moulds in wheat samples. Thus, SCI values were in the range 36.67-20% depending on the applied level. Similar results on the antifungal effect of O4 have been reported by Dambolena et al. and Kumar et al.. However, statistical differences registered after 22 days of treatment are non-significant (P > 0.1) related to the control. Previous studies reported that phenolic compounds as thymol are responsible for the antifungal activity. Also, it contains a range of additional compounds, such as camphene, camphor, p-Cymene, myrcene, borneol and linalool [39, 40]. The mechanism action of phenolic compounds includes enzyme inhibition by the oxidized compounds which affect the integrity of membrane, pH homeostasis and equilibrium of inorganic ions .
After 5 days of treatment with O5 it was possible to point out that SCI values decreased simultaneous with increasing of essential oil level (33.33% at a level of 500 ppm, 30% at a level of 1000 ppm and 26.67% at a level of 2000 ppm). The statistical differences recorded were extremely significant relative to the control. O5 contains higher amounts of menthol and eucalyptol . The effect of menthol on the growth, sporulation and FUMO production has been previously proven .
In the case of treatment with O6, after 5 days of incubation the total populations of fungi were reduced. Thus, the values recorded for SCI were 36.67% for a level of 500 ppm and 33.33% by using of this essential oil to a level of 1000 ppm. The antifungal activity of O6 reached the maximum value for a level of 2000 ppm, proven by the value recorded for SCI (0%). According to results obtained after statistical processing of data by one-way ANOVA test, the differences related to the control were extremely significant. The exhibited antifungal activity was consistent with other studies which has highlighted that O6 to a level at least 1000 ppm induced a total inhibition of the fungus growth. In agreement with data reported by Soliman and Badeaa , we could attribute this effect to the main chemical components such as eugenol, eugenol acetate, cinnamic aldehyde and benzyl benzoate identified in this essential oil.
We can notice that after 22 days of treatment the inhibitory effect induced by applying of all essential oils on fungal contamination decreased. This finding can be explained by evaporation of the active principles specified to essential oils. The statistical differences recorded in the natural mycoflora of wheat grains treated with essentials oils were non-significant (P > 0.1) relative to the control. Only for the level of 2000 ppm were recorded significant differences for O3 and extremely significant for O1, O2 and O6.
Impact of essential oils on frequency of fungus genera
To a closer inspection of obtained data we can notice that O1 inhibited the growth of both Fusarium and Aspergillus species for all levels used in vivo treatments. Recent studies carried out in vitro pointed out that the treatment with lemon balm essential oil not resulted in a fungicidal effect for a concentration of 7.5 mg∙ml-1.
In the case of treatment with O1 to a level of 500 ppm, Alternaria was the major fungus present in wheat samples, while for a level of 1000 ppm the yeast Saccharomyces was the most predominant. The treatment with this essential oil to a level of 2000 ppm has inhibited completely the germination of spores and the growth of molds.
The treatment with O2 to a level over 500 ppm inhibited the growth of Fusarium, Alternaria, and Asppergillus comparatively with O4, O5 and O6. Similar results were reported by Daferera et al. regarding the effects of sage essential oils on mycelial growth of Fusarium sp. Thus, it was noticed that the treatment with O2 to a level over 1000 μg·ml-1 induced a decreasing of 50% of mycelium linear growth of Fusarium. Based on our data it be seen that by applying of O2 to a level of 2000 ppm, Saccharomyces species are the most tolerant fungus. This result strengthens the finding reported by Vukovic et al. on the fact that treatment with sage extract exhibited a protective effect on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
The treatment with O3 applied for wheat seed samples favored a high frequency of occurrence of fungi such as Alternaria, Fusarium, Saccharomyces, Aspergillus and Hyphopichia. Only to a level of 2000 ppm it was noticed a decreasing of the fungus frequency. According to other data reported by Zoubiri et al. we have supposed that this effect was due to linalool - the main compound identified in O3.
The O4 exhibited a broad spectrum fungitoxicity against different fungi. After 5 days of treatment no Fusarium, Cladosporium and Aspergillus species were detected. The results were similar with those reported by other previous researches [1, 38], that indicated a complete inhibition of the growth of Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium osysporum, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus fumigantus, Alternaria and Cladosporium sp. by treatment with different concentrations of O4. Also, the growth and spore germination of Aspergillus niger, A. ochraceus and A. flavus were fully inhibited by the thyme oil to a level of 600 ppm . For treatments carried out in vitro, the fungitoxicity of O4 was recorded for a level of 71 μg∙ml-1. For this level it was recorded a decreasing of 50% of linear growth of Fusarium species. Considering this aspect, many researchers recommend the treatment with O4 as a natural way to control the presence of micotoxingenic fungi in stored cereals [34, 38].
Menthol is a naturally occurring compound present in the volatile oil of several species of mint such as Mentha piperita. After 5 days of treatment, the species identified in the sample treated with O5 to a level of 500 ppm belong to genera: Alternaria, Aspergillus and Saccharomyces. In samples treated with O5 to levels of 1000 and 2000 ppm were predominant only Alternaria and Saccharomyces genera. Other previous studies reported that menthol stereoisomers and menthone exhibited no significant antitoxigenic activity that may be related to their structural type and the functional of present group [40, 41]. In order to prevent the moulds growth is needed the doses of essential oils higher than 1000 ppm.
The treatment with O6 inhibited the growth of Fusarium and Cladosporium species depending on applied level. It was noticed that Alternaria species were more resistant to treatment with O6 than others filamentous fungus identified on the wheat seeds treated with this essential oil to a level of 500 and 1000 ppm. The highest level of O6 (2000 ppm) inhibited both yeasts and moulds. Our results are in agreement with those of previous studies that reported antifusarium activity against non-toxigenic (F. solani and F. oxysporum) and toxigenic (F. verticillioides, F. poae and F. culmorum) isolates . Also, the antifungal activity against Cladosporium herbarum, Rhizopus and Aspergillus niger was reported .
The treatments with O5 and O6 to a level of 500 ppm resulted in the identification of the Aspergillus sp. with a frequency of genera about 20%. The most fungicidal effect on Aspergillus growth was recorder for treatment with O4, followed by O1 and O6 while O5 and O3 were able to induce an inhibition just over the level of 500 ppm.
After 22 days of incubation in dark conditions, at 25 ± 2°C and water activity (aw) to a value of 0.900 the frequency of occurrence of the fungus genera on wheat grain samples has changed in terms of fungal colonization. In control sample were identified filamentous fungi belonging to the Alternaria si Fusarium genera and fungus such as yeasts Pichia, Saccharomyces and Hyphopichia. Overall, it has been observed a great abundance of Saccharomyces for all concentrations of essential oils. In case of treatments with essential oils to a level of 2000 ppm it was noted that the growth of Alternaria and Fusarium was fully inhibited while Hyphopichia and Saccharomyces genera showed a high tolerance. It seems that to a level of 2000 ppm all essential oils induced a strong antifungal effect because there it was not observed the fungal growth of filamentous fungus. The antifungal effect of these essential oils on yeast Pichia, Saccharomyces and Hyphopichia has been reached to a level of 2000 ppm while the treatments with lower doses of essential oils induced a fungistatic effect.
The studies conducted in vitro found that the fungicidal effect expresses as minimum inhibitory concentration started from a level of 500 ppm for cinnamon oil . Thus, in order to reach the fungicidal effect in the case of in vivo treatments is needed the higher levels of essential oils than for in vitro applications.
In case of thyme essential oil applied in vitro treatments, the fungicidal effect of Fusarium moniliforme was reached at a level of 125 ppm . In our study, carried out in vivo, it was needed the doses higher than 500 ppm in order to inhibit the growth of Fusarium species, as can be seen in Figure 1a. For treatment with lemon balm essential oil the antifungal effect was reached to a level over 1000 ppm, and for peppermint essential oil the same effect was noted to a level of 500 ppm. Also, it was demonstrated that cinnamon essential oil had a significant inhibitory effect on growth of F. proliferatum at aw of 0.995. The inhibitory effect was significant at levels of 500 and 1000 ppm .
The antifungal effect of essential oils could be explain by the modifications induced on the fungal morphogenesis and fungus growth through the interference of their components with the enzymes responsible for wall cell synthesis leading to changes in the hyphae integrity, plasma membrane disruption and mitochondrial destruction . Antifungal activity of essential oils according to their major components was as follows: phenols > alcohols > aldehydes > ketones > ethers > hydrocarbons .
Impact of essential oils on FUMO and DON production
The decline registered in FUMO content after 22 days of treatment with essential oils were in the range 57.46-97.32% related to the initial value depending on the type and level of the essential oil applied. The best control on FUMO production, expressed by a reduction over 90% related to the control, was recorded for all levels of O6, O5, and O4. These results are in agreement with the study of Soliman et al. which found that the effect of essential oils in FUMO control was as follows: O4 > O6 > O5. The treatments with O1, O2 and O3 resulted in a moderate inhibitory effect for the lowest level of essential oils used in this study (500 ppm). Also, several researches have reported the preservation of grains by using of essential oils  and their impact on FUMO production by F. verticillioides[41, 46, 47] or by F. proliferatum.
Our results shown that the losses of FUMO recorded in wheat samples as a result of treatment with O1 were in the range 57.46-79.67% related to the initial value. Similar results were also noticed for treatments with O2 and O3 at a level of 500 ppm, while the inhibitory potential to the doses of 1000 and 2000 ppm was maintained in the range 90.6-96.6%.
The mycotoxins production is affected by the treatment conditions (temperature and moisture content of the grains). It might be assumed that the penetration of the oils into the internal parts of the grain is improved in the presence of water. Previous researches proved that aw, temperature, dose and type of essential oil as well as some of their interactions had a significant effect on FUMO production by F. proliferatum[46, 49]. In our study, the constant conditions, in terms of aw (0.900) and temperature (25 ± 2°C), resulted in a decreasing of DON and FUMO content in wheat samples after 22 days.
As regards the effect of essential oil composition on mycotoxin synthesis, on the one hand a few studies have reported high inhibitory activity exhibited by phenolic compounds (cyclic terpenes, eugenol, carvacrol and their isomer thymol). The mechanism of phenolic compounds supposes the involvement of these compounds in enzyme inhibition, possibly through reaction with sulfhydryl groups or through interactions with proteins . On the other hand, it has reported that the relative antifungal activity of the essential oils can not be easily correlated with any individual component but just with a mixture of compounds from these oils [50, 51].
Inhibition of fungus growth and toxins production do not always occur together . In our study, after 22 days of treatment, O4-O6 produced the higher FUMO inhibition, but the most fungicidal effect was recorded for O2 to a level of 2000 ppm. For example, previous studies with F. culmorum and F. graminearum pointed out that growth of fungi was significantly inhibited by cinnamon essential oil, but toxin production was enhanced . Also, Magan et al. found that suboptimal levels of fungicides stimulated DON production by F. culmorum in wheat grains. The additional stress of the fungicidal agents combined with water stress could stimulate mycotoxin production . The inhibitory effect of terpenes on Fusarium growth and FUMO production followed the sequence: limonene > thymol > menthol > menthone . According to our findings O4 contains high amounts of thymol, as noted previously  exhibited significant inhibitory effect on FUMO biosynthesis (expressed by a loss of 97.32% of the initial value to a level of 500 ppm).
After 22 days of treatment with essential oils, DON was undetectable in all wheat samples. Similar effect of essential oils on growth rate of DON produced by Fusarium species was reported . The inhibition of DON production in control sample can be explained by the maintaining of aw to a value of 0.900 during the entire period of incubation, other previous studies proving that the minimum value of aw for DON production by Fusarium sp seems to be limited about 0.93 at 25°C .
Antioxidants properties of essential oils
Antioxidant characteristics of essential oils
Total phenolics (μM GAE∙g-1)
Antioxidant activity (μM Fe2+∙g-1)
33.01 ± 2.52
246.23 ± 9.37
18.52 ± 1.06
55.48 ± 3.81
16.71 ± 0.93
40.41 ± 2.73
473.44 ± 11.27
650.48 ± 14.29
22.48 ± 1.63
100.85 ± 5.21
30.17 ± 2.41
230.03 ± 8.12
Correlation coefficients obtained by linear regression analysis applied for investigated parameters
Correlation coefficient (r)
5 days after treatment
Y = A + BX
FRAP = f(SCI)
TP = f(SCI)
22 days after treatment
Y = A + BX
FRAP = f(SCI)
TP = f(SCI)
FRAP = f(FUMO)
TP = f(FUMO)
Simple linear regression analysis was applied using the Origin 6.0 software program. Table 3 shows the values of linear correlation coefficients or Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) obtained as a response to linear regression between: FRAP and SCI recorded after 5 and 22 days of treatment, TP and SCI recorded after 5 and 22 days of treatment, FRAP and FUMO after 22 days of treatment and TP and FUMO registered after 22 days of treatment. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) represents a quantitative measure to describe the strength of the linear relationship established between investigated parameters. By comparing of the values of these coefficients obtained in response to regressions established between investigated parameters recorded after 5 days of treatment, it was noticed that there was recorded a significant negative linear correlation between antioxidant properties expressed by FRAP or TP and SCI for O1 and O6 (r > 0.88), suggesting that essentials oils with high antioxidant characteristics induced a low fungal contamination.
Using O2-O5, the values recorded for correlation coefficients were in the range 0.64-0.87 representing a low to medium correlation between antioxidant properties of applied oils and SCI.
After 22 days, according to these values, resulted a significant correlation (r > 0.87) between antioxidant activity and the fungal load induced by using of most essentials oils, except cinnamon oil (O6).
Based on regression analysis between antioxidant properties of essential oils and FUMO content recorded in grain samples after 22 days it can be noticed that the correlation coefficients did not exceed the value of 0.844 for all essentials oils. This fact proves that the high antimycotoxin activity of the essential oil could be due to other components, major and minor, or by the synergistic effect of their which can act together for biological activity of essential oils, as suggested by Prakash et al., Rota et al. and Velluti et al.. Although, the essential oils were not as efficiently as some organic preservatives, they are recommended in food technologies due to absence of toxic effect.
Regarding the correlation between Fusarium mycotoxins expressed by FUMO content and antioxidant activity of essential oils, there was not recorded a good correlation. This fact could suggest that TP and FRAP have not a crucial role in expression of antimycotoxin properties of these essential oils. Although it was noticed a high positive linear correlation between FRAP and TP of investigated essential oils (R = 0.94), besides polyphenolic compounds there are others responsible for their antioxidant properties that might be involved in the expression of inhibitory potential .
Based on our data, this work could be an important tool for assessment of essential oils inhibitory potential on the fungal growth and Fusarium mycotoxins production in natural contaminated wheat. By applying the treatment with essential oils it was noticed that essential oils from cinnamon and lemon balm exhibited a significant antifungal activity. The highest inhibition of fungal growth was observed after 5 days of treatment and decrease after 22 days, probably due to high volatility of essential oils. Regarding the frequency of occurrence of fungus genera on wheat seeds, it was proven that O2 shown the highest inhibitory potential on the growth of Fusarium, Alternaria, and Asppergillus to a level of 500 ppm. In terms of the impact of essential oils on mycotoxin production, at the end of treatment it was recorded the inhibition of DON and FUMO production. The best control on FUMO production was noted in samples treated with O6 followed by those treated with O5 and O4. It was found that the essential oil having the best antifungal properties has not proved to be the most effective inhibitor in Fusarium mycotoxin production. It was noticed a significant negative linear correlation between antioxidant and seed contamination index for O1 and O6, suggesting that essentials oils with high antioxidant characteristics induced a low fungal contamination. Contrary, it was not recorded a good correlation between FRAP/TP and FUMO content suggesting that antioxidant properties of essential oils have not a crucial role in expression of antimycotoxin effect. As a result of this study, the essential oils may be recommended as natural preservatives applied during cereals storage.
Essential oil from Melissa officinalis L.
Essential oil from Salvia officinalis L.
Essential oil from Coriandrum sativum L.
Essential oil from Thymus vulgaris L.
Essential oil from Mentha piperita L.
Essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.
Seed contamination index
Isolation frequency of genera
Ferric reducing antioxidant power
Control (untreated sample)
Medium, potato dextrose agar
Dichloran chloramphenicol peptone agar medium.
This study was performed with support of SEE-ERA NET PLUS Program by research project ERA139/01, 2010–2012, titled: “Systems to reduce mycotoxins contamination of cereals and medicinal plants in order to preservation native species and traditional products in Romania-Serbia-Croatia area”, project manager Ersilia Alexa.
- Rasooli I, Rezaei MB, Allameh A: Growth inhibition and morphological alterations of Aspergillus niger by essential oils from Thymus eriocalyx and Thymus x-porlock. Food Control. 2006, 17: 359-364. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2004.12.002.View Article
- Marin S, Sanchis V, Ramos AJ: Plant products in the control of Mycotoxins and Mycotoxigenic fungi on food commodities. Natural Products in Plant Pest Management. Edited by: Dubey NK. 2011, CAB International, 31-35.
- Reynoso MM, Torres AM, Ramirez MI, Rodriguez MI, Chulze S, Magan N: Efficacy of antioxidant mixtures on growth FUMO production and hydrolitic enzyme production by Fusarium verticilloides and Fusarium proliferatum on maize media. Mycol Res. 2002, 106: 1093-1099. 10.1017/S0953756202006135.View Article
- Etcheverry M, Torres A, Ramirez ML, Chulze S, Magan N: In vitro control of growth and FUMO production by Fusarium verticilloides and Fusarium proliferatum using antioxidants under different water availability and temperature regimes. J Appl Microbiol. 2002, 92: 624-632. 10.1046/j.1365-2672.2002.01566.x.View Article
- Torres AM, Ramirez MI, Arroyo M, Chulze SN, Magan N: Potential use of antioxidants for control of growth and FUMO production by Fusarium verticilloides and Fusarium proliferatum on whole maize grain. Int J Food Microbiol. 2003, 83: 319-324. 10.1016/S0168-1605(02)00380-X.View Article
- Marin S, Ramos AJ, Cuevas D, Sanchis V: Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium graminearum infection and FUMO B1 and zearalenone accumulation in resveratrol treated corn. Food Sci Techn Int. 2006, 12: 353-359. 10.1177/1082013206067907.View Article
- Palacios AS, Ramirez LM, Cabrera Zalazar M, Farnochi CM, Zappacosta D, Chiacchiera MS, Reynoso MM, Chulze NS, Torres MA: Occurrence of Fusarium spp. and FUMO in durum wheat grains. J Agric Food Chem. 2011, 59: 12264-12269. 10.1021/jf204035y.View Article
- Chehri K, Jahromi ST, Reddy Kasa RN, Abbasi S, Salleh B: Occurrence of Fusarium spp. and FUMOs in stored wheat grains marketed in Iran. Toxins. 2010, 2: 2816-2823. 10.3390/toxins2122816.View Article
- Alexa E, Poiana MA, Sumalan RM: Mycoflora and ochratoxin a control in wheat grain using natural extracts obtained from wine industry by-products. Int J Mol Sci. 2012, 13: 4949-4967. 10.3390/ijms13044949.View Article
- Fanelli C, Taddei F, Trionfetti Nisini P, Jestoi M, Ricelli A, Visconti A, Fabbri AA: Use of resveratrol and BHA to control growth and mycotoxin production in wheat and maize seeds. Asp Appl Biol. 2003, 68: 63-71.
- Aldred D, Cairns V, Magan N: Environmental factors affect efficacy of some essential oils and resveratrol to control growth and ochratoxin A production by Penicillium verrucosum and Aspergillus westerdijkiae on wheat grain. J Stored Prod Res. 2008, 4: 341-346.View Article
- Magan N, Aldred D, Hope R, Mitchell D: Environmental factors and interactions with mycobiota of grain and grapes: Effects on growth, Deoxynivalenol and Ochratoxin production by Fusarium culmorum and Aspergillus carbonarius. Toxins. 2010, 2: 353-366. 10.3390/toxins2030353.View Article
- Bassole IHN, Juliani HR: Essential oils in combination and their antimicrobial properties. Molecules. 2012, 17: 3989-4006. 10.3390/molecules17043989.View Article
- Naeini A, Ziglari T, Shokri H, Khosravi AR: Assessment of growth-inhibiting effect of some plant essential oils on different Fusarium isolates. J Mycol Med. 2010, 20: 174-178. 10.1016/j.mycmed.2010.05.005.View Article
- Isman BM: Plant essential oils for pest and disease management. Crop Prot. 2000, 19: 603-608. 10.1016/S0261-2194(00)00079-X.View Article
- Quiroga EN, Sampietro AR, Vattuone MA: Screening antifungal activities of selected medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001, 74: 89-96. 10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00350-0.View Article
- Soliman KM, Badeaa RI: Effect of oil extracted from some medicinal plants on different mycotoxigenic fungi. Food Chem Toxicol. 2002, 40: 1669-1675. 10.1016/S0278-6915(02)00120-5.View Article
- Lee SH, Chang KS, Su MS, Huang YS, Jang HD: Effects of some Chinese medicinal plant extracts on five different fungi. Food Control. 2007, 18: 1547-1554. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2006.12.005.View Article
- Chulze SN: Strategies to reduce mycotoxin levels in maize during storage: a review. Food Add Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2010, 27: 651-657. 10.1080/19440040903573032.View Article
- Bluma R, Amaiden MR, Etcheverry M: Screening of Argentine plant extracts: Impact on growth parameters and aflatoxin B1 accumulation by Aspergillus section Flavi. Int J Food Microbiol. 2008, 122: 114-125. 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2007.11.050.View Article
- Magan N, Aldred D, Mylona K, Lambert RJ: Limiting mycotoxins in stored wheat - a review. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2010, 27: 644-650. 10.1080/19440040903514523.View Article
- Tzortzakis NG, Economakis CD: Antifungal activity of lemongrass (Cympopogon citratus L.) essential oil against key postharvest pathogens. Innov Food Sci Emerging Technol. 2007, 8: 253-258. 10.1016/j.ifset.2007.01.002.View Article
- Pitt JI, Hocking AD: Fungi and food spoilage. 2009, Springer, New York, 53-142.View Article
- Doolotkeldieva TD: Microbiological control of flour-manufacture: dissemination of mycotoxins producing fungi in cereal products. Microbiology Insights. 2010, 3: 1-15.
- Hocking AD, Pitt JI, Samson RA, Thrane U: Advances in Food Mycology. 2006, Springer, New York, 344-View Article
- Leslie JF, Summerell BA: The Fusarium Laboratory Manual. 2006, Blackwell Publish Ltd, Ames, IA, 158-276.View Article
- Singleton VL, Orthofer R, Lamuela-Raventos RM: Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Meth Enzymol. 1999, 299: 152-178.View Article
- Benzie IFF, Strain L: Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of antioxidant power: The FRAP assay. Anal Biochem. 1996, 239: 70-76. 10.1006/abio.1996.0292.View Article
- Stef DS, Gergen I, Trasca TI, Stef L, Rivis A, Heghedus MG, Bordean D: The influence of level and source of microelements on the antioxidant activity of medicinal herbs. Rom Biotechnol Lett. 2010, 15: 5611-5617.
- SAS Institute Inc: SAS for Windows, version 8.1 edition. 2000, SAS Institute Inc, Cary, NC
- Soylu EM, Kurt S, Soylu S: In vitro and in vivo antifungal activities of the essential oils of various plants against tomato grey mould disease agent Botrytis cinerea. Int J Food Microbiol. 2010, 143: 183-189. 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2010.08.015.View Article
- Singh D, Kumar TRS, Gupta VK, Chaturvedi P: Antimicrobial activity of some promising plant oils, molecules and formulations. Indian J Exp Biol. 2012, 50: 714-717.
- Tabanca N, Demirci B, Baser KHC, Aytac Z, Ekici M, Khan IS, Jacob RM, Wedge DE: Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Salvia macrochlamys and Salvia recognita essential oils. J Agric Food Chem. 2006, 54: 6593-6597. 10.1021/jf0608773.View Article
- Daferera DJ, Ziogas BN, Polissiou MG: The effectiveness of plant essential oils on the growth of Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium sp. and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. Michiganensis. Crop Prot. 2003, 22: 39-44. 10.1016/S0261-2194(02)00095-9.View Article
- Msaada K, Hosni K, Taarit MB, Chahed T, Kchouk ME, Marzouk B: Changes on essential oil composition of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) fruits during three stages of maturity. Food Chem. 2007, 102: 1131-1134. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.06.046.View Article
- Zoubiri S, Baaliouamer A: Essential oil composition of Coriandrum sativum seed cultivated in Algeria as food grains protectant. Food Chem. 2010, 122: 1226-1228. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.03.119.View Article
- Dambolena JS, López AG, Cánepa MC, Theumer MG, Zygadlo JA, Rubinstein HR: Inhibitory effect of cyclic terpenes (limonene, menthol, menthone and thymol) on Fusarium verticillioides MRC 826 growth and FUMO B1 biosynthesis. Toxicon. 2008, 51: 37-44.View Article
- Kumar A, Shukla R, Singh P, Shekhar C, Dubey NK: Assesment of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil as a safe botanical preservative against post harvest fungal infestation of food commodities. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol. 2008, 10: 575-580.View Article
- Porte A, Godoy RLO: Chemical composition of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) essential oil from the Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil). J Serb Chem Soc. 2008, 73: 307-310. 10.2298/JSC0803307P.View Article
- Imelouane B, Amhamdi H, Wathelet JP, Ankit M, Khedid K, El Bachiri A: Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Thymus vulgaris (thyme) from Eastern Morocco. Int J Agr Biol. 2009, 11: 205-208.
- Dambolena JS, Lopez AG, Rubinstein HR, Zygadlo JA: Effects of menthol stereoisomers on the growth, sporulation and FUMO B1 production of Fusarium verticillioides. Food Chem. 2010, 123: 165-170. 10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.04.024.View Article
- Zheljazkov VD, Cantrell CL, Astatkie T, Hristov A: Yield, content, and composition of peppermint and spearmints as a function of harvesting time and drying. J Agric Food Chem. 2010, 58: 11400-11407. 10.1021/jf1022077.View Article
- Samie A, Nefefe T: Antifungal activities of essential oils from Southern African medicinal plants against five Fusarium species. J Med Plants Res. 2012, 6: 465-478.
- Vukovic-Gacic B, Nikcevic S, Beric-Bjedov T, Knezevic-Vukcevic J, Simic D: Antimutagenic effect of essential oil of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and its monoterpenes against UV-induced mutations in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Food Chem Toxicol. 2006, 44: 1730-1738. 10.1016/j.fct.2006.05.011.View Article
- Tzortzakis NGZ: Impact of cinnamon oil-enrichment on microbial spoilage of fresh produce. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol. 2009, 10: 97-102. 10.1016/j.ifset.2008.09.002.View Article
- Velluti A, Sanchis V, Ramos AJ, Egido J, Marın S: Inhibitory effect of cinnamon, clove, lemongrass, oregano and palmarose essential oils on growth and FUMO B1 production by Fusarium proliferatum in maize grain. Int J Food Microbiol. 2003, 89: 145-154. 10.1016/S0168-1605(03)00116-8.View Article
- Menniti AM, Gregori R, Neri F: Activity of natural compounds on Fusarium verticillioides and FUMO production in stored maize kernels. Int J Food Microbiol. 2010, 136: 304-309. 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2009.10.008.View Article
- Desjardins AE, Busman M, Proctor RH, Stessman R: Wheat kernel black point and FUMO contamination by Fusarium proliferatum. Food Addit Contam. 2007, 24: 1131-1137. 10.1080/02652030701513834.View Article
- Hope R, Aldred D, Magan N: Comparison of environmental profiles for growth and deoxynivalenol production by Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum on wheat grain. Lett App Microbiol. 2005, 40: 295-300. 10.1111/j.1472-765X.2005.01674.x.View Article
- Ranasinghe L, Jayawardena B, Abeywickrama KP: Fungicidal activity of the essential oils of Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. and Syzygium aromaticum L. Merr et L.M. Perry against crown rot and anthracnose pathogens isolated from banana. Lett App Microbiol. 2002, 35: 208-211. 10.1046/j.1472-765X.2002.01165.x.View Article
- Hashem M, Moharam AM, Zaied AA, Saleh FEM: Efficacy of essential oils in the control of cumin root rot disease caused by Fusarium spp. Crop Prot. 2010, 29: 1111-1117. 10.1016/j.cropro.2010.04.020.View Article
- Tenore GC, Ciampaglia R, Arnold NA, Piozzi F, Napolitano F, Rigano D, Senatore F: Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of the essential oil of Salvia lanigera from Cyprus. Food Chem Toxicol. 2011, 49: 238-243. 10.1016/j.fct.2010.10.022.View Article
- Chia-Wen L, Chia-Wen Y, Sung-Chuan W, Kuang-Hway Y: DPPH free-radical scavenging activity, total phenolic contents and chemical composition analysis of forty-two kinds of essential oils. J Food Drug Anal. 2009, 17: 386-395.
- Chrpova D, Kourimska L, Gordon MH, Hermanova V, Roubickova I, Panek J: Antioxidant activity of selected phenols and herbs used in diets for medical conditions. Czech J Food Sci. 2010, 28: 317-325.
- Hussain AI: Characterization and biological activities of essential oils of some species of Lamiaceae. PhD thesis. 2009, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry
- Pop G, Alexa E, Militaru AV: Antioxidant polyphenol and flavone contents in correlation with cultivation technology for Calendula officinalis L. Ann Oradea Univ Biol Fasc. 2009, XVI: 102-104.
- Politeo O, Juki M, Milo M: Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils of twelve spice plants. Croat Chem Acta. 2006, 79: 545-552.
- Prakash B, Singh P, Kedia A, Dubey NK: Assessment of some essential oils as food preservatives based on antifungal, antiaflatoxin, antioxidant activities and in vivo efficacy in food system. Food Res Int. 2012, 49: 201-208. 10.1016/j.foodres.2012.08.020.View Article
- Rota MC, Herrera A, Martínez RM, Sotomayor J, Jordán MJ: Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis and Thymus hyemalis essential oils. Food Control. 2008, 19: 681-687. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2007.07.007.View Article
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.