Oxygen radical-mediated oxidation reactions of an alanine peptide motif - density functional theory and transition state theory study
© Chen et al 2012
Received: 27 September 2011
Accepted: 24 April 2012
Published: 24 April 2012
Oxygen-base (O-base) oxidation in protein backbone is important in the protein backbone fragmentation due to the attack from reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, an alanine peptide was used model system to investigate this O-base oxidation by employing density functional theory (DFT) calculations combining with continuum solvent model. Detailed reaction steps were analyzed along with their reaction rate constants.
Most of the O-base oxidation reactions for this alanine peptide are exothermic except for the bond-breakage of the Cα-N bond to form hydroperoxy alanine radical. Among the reactions investigated in this study, the activated energy of OH α-H abstraction is the lowest one, while the generation of alkylperoxy peptide radical must overcome the highest energy barrier. The aqueous situation facilitates the oxidation reactions to generate hydroxyl alanine peptide derivatives except for the fragmentations of alkoxyl alanine peptide radical. The Cα-Cβ bond of the alkoxyl alanine peptide radical is more labile than the peptide bond.
the rate-determining step of oxidation in protein backbone is the generation of hydroperoxy peptide radical via the reaction of alkylperoxy peptide radical with HO2. The stabilities of alkylperoxy peptide radical and complex of alkylperoxy peptide radical with HO2 are crucial in this O-base oxidation reaction.
During the past decade, there was a rapidly increasing interest in oxidative damage to proteins, and its relevance to aging and pathological disorders [1–12]. The oxidation mechanism was constructed by identifying the trace of possible reaction intermediates and it is surmised that the mechanism is composed of a series reactions with HO2 radical, as suggested by Stadtman et al. [2–4]. However, the details of reactions are still undetermined. These reaction mechanisms can provide scientists with some clues to aid in the design of medicines or nutrients to slow down the aging process or to decrease the probability of the age-related diseases. Obviously, an understanding of the processes of the protein oxidation is important, particularly as life expectancy increases. To the best of our knowledge, there are only few articles using ab initio or density functional theory (DFT) methods to study the oxidative damage of proteins through structural factors [13–20]. The main goals of the previous studies were to estimate the stability of carbon-center radicals and the strength of the C-H bond via bond dissociation energy calculations. In our previous study, it was found that the α-H located on a β-sheet is more difficult to abstract than one located on an α-helix . However, this finding contradicts the results reported by Rauk et al.  and Owen et al. [22, 23]. There were several articles about the OH H-abstraction from several amino acids [24–28]. Huang and Rauk  performed a series of theoretical calculations on reactions theoretically starting from an alkylperoxyl radical. Wood et al.  studied the C-C backbone fission of four small alkoxy radicals. To our best knowledge, there are no studies regarding the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of the overall oxidation processes in proteins and therefore it becomes the most crucial issue in understanding the protein oxidative damage.
the rate constants of the above reactions at 298.15 K was calculated using transition state theory to understand their reaction kinetics. However, the effect of tunneling was not considered in this study. The solvent effect was also simulated by using continuum model in order to investigate the influence of an aqueous solution enviroment on the protein oxidation reactions. Through this study, we hope to shed some light on the process of protein oxidation.
where Q is partition function, which can be obtained in Gaussian output file; E 0 is the energy with zero-point correction; k b is Boltzmann constant; h is Planck constant and T is temperature. The transition states were verified by harmonic vibrational frequency analysis with only one negative frequency and checked their reaction pathways with intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) analysis by connecting the associated reactants and products. As to the ΔH rxn value, we just used those reported in Gaussian output. We used the structures optimized in the gas phase to do single point calculation with CPCM at B3LYP/6-31 G(d, p) level without zero-point correction. There are several issues are worth noting for the proposed oxidation mechanism before entering the discussion section. In Reaction b, as mentioned in the introduction section, alkylperoxy peptide radical is an important intermediate in the oxidation chain reactions of many chemical and biological systems due to its stability [33–37]. An alkylperoxy peptide radical can be generated easily from an α-C peptide radical surrounded by oxygen molecules. There are rotational isomers for this radical, which can be located by rotating the oxygen molecule with respect to the α-C-C bond, followed by structural optimization. After locating the stable structures, their heat of formation values can be calculated. In Reaction d, although PA-O 2 Hs are rather difficult to obtaine via Reaction c, as stated in previous subsection, it can be generated without energy barrier by attaching the terminal O of HO2 directly to the carbon radical site of PA, Reaction h. Therefore, it is important to study the reaction between PA and HO2 in present study. Apart from PA-O 2 Hs, the related isomers can be classified according to the rotation of the Cα-O or O-O bond. The H-migration reactions involved in Reaction c and gare crucial for the oxidation mechanism. Without them, the reactions involve higher energetic barriers. In Reaction c, the spin densities of hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) [38, 39] and alkylperoxy alanine peptide radical (PA-O 2 s) are mostly located on the terminal oxygen. From literature [40, 41], the most stable structure of HO2 dimer is HOO-OOH. This implies that the first step of Reaction cis to generate PA-OOOOH by attaching a HO2 to the terminal O of PA-O 2 s. After three consecutive H-migration reactions, the products of the Reaction ccan be obtained. Reaction gis a reaction involving an HO2 radical attacking an alkoxyl alanine peptide radical (PA-O), generating a hydroxyl alanine peptide derivative, i.e., PA-OH, and O2. Similarly, owing to the dominant spin density of PA-O located on O, the pre-reactive species PA-OOOH are formed first and then Reaction goccurs via three consecutive H-migrations. All calculations were performed with Gaussian03 package .
Result and discussion
(a) Reaction a: the generation of an α-C center peptide radical by OH α-H abstraction
The mechanism of the α-H abstraction reaction by OH radical from alanine peptide -PA-H was presented in Figure 1. A pre-reactive complex IN1-a-PA is formed first, followed by H2O elimination to generate an α-C center radical peptide intermediate, PA. The energy barrier of the OH α-H abstraction from PA-H, is 22.9 kJ mol-1 in gas phase compared with 24.6 kJ mol-1 in an aqueous environment. Their corresponding rate coefficients of these two reactions, without tunnel effect consideration are 4.38 × 07 M-1 s-1 and 2.24 × 107 M-1 s-1, respectively. The rate constant we found is one order lower than that for oligopeptides [8, 43] (k ~108) and two order lower than that for cyclic peptides [8, 44] (k ~109) in aqueous solutions. However, they are close to the rate constant  for free alanine, 7.7 × 107 M-1 s-1, at pH ca. 7.
(b) Reaction b: Alkylperoxy peptide radical generation through molecular oxygen molecular addition to α-C center peptide radical
Three different conformers of alkylperoxy alanine peptide radical can be found, i.e., PA-O 2 -a, PA-O 2 -b and PA-O 2 -c. There is no energy barrier for this oxygen addition reaction. Interestingly, the rate constants of cyclic peptides with oxygen were measured, ca. 109 M-1 s-1 , which indicates that it could be barrierless and controlled by diffusion. In the gas phase, the most stable conformer is PA-O 2 -b, consistent with the previous study , followed by PA-O 2 -a and PA-O 2 -c is the least stable one among these three. The optimized structures and the interconversion mechanisms among these three isomers were shown in Figure 2. However, including solvent effect, PA-O 2 -c becomes more stable than PA-O 2 -a. PA-O 2 -b is a stable intermediate since its heat formation is not very large, 55.7 kJ mol-1 in gas phase and 64.7 kJ mol-1 in aqueous phase. All the energy barriers of the interconversion among PA-O 2 s, by rotating the Cα-O bond, are pretty small and lower than the energy required for dissociating the oxygen molecule directly.
(c) The generation of hydroperoxy analine peptide intermediate (PA-O2H) via Reactions c
This is similar to the reaction of HO2 with CH3 and RO2 as described in previous theoretical works [31, 45, 46]. However, we did not find any intermediate PA-OO...HOO that existed at singlet state, which is consistent with the previous study. Due to its high energy, triplet state PA-OO...HOO was not considered in the present study .
(d) The generation of hydroperoxy alanine peptide by a HO2 addition to PA
The relative energy of TS-r-O2H-bbb, which is the activated complex of the conversion reaction between PA-O 2 H-b and PA-O 2 H-bb, is lower than that of PA-O 2 H-bb in gas phase. In aqueous phase, the strong solvation of TS-r-O2H-bbb makes its relative energy even lower than those of both reactant and product for the interconversion reaction. These results indicate that the rotation of the O-O bond has a small or no energy barrier, therefore, the conformers formed by rotating the O-O bond were ignored and only the conformers formed by rotation of the Cα-O bond were considered in this study. Two conformers were found, PA-O 2 H-a and PA-O 2 H-c. The related optimized structures and conversion mechanism were presented in Figure 4.
In general, the conversion by rotation across Cα-N bond is difficult in gas phase but is rather easy in aqueous phase due to the strong solvation in its TS, TS-r-O 2 H-bbc. Moreover, the conversions among PA-O 2 Hs are even harder than the conversions among PA-O 2 s. The most stable conformer of PA-O 2 Hs in gas phase is PA-O 2 H-c because the H in HO2 can serve as a hydrogen bond (HB) donor [38–41, 47, 48], interacting with carbonyl O, which is consistent with the previous study [29, 30]. It also can explain why PA-O 2 H-b is more stable than PA-O 2 H-bb in gas phase. However, PA-O 2 H-bb becomes the most stable conformer among PA-O 2 Hs when the aqueous solvation is taken into consideration. The dominant species of PA-O 2 Hs in gas and in aqueous phases are PA-O 2 H-c and PA-O 2 H-bb, respectively. Their corresponding formation heats are -210.7 and -175.6 kJ mol-1, highly exothermic.
(e) Reaction d: PA-O2H + HO2 → PA-O + H2O + O2
There exists a pre-reactive species, PA-(O 2 H) 2 , before the generation of products, i.e., PA-O, H2O and O2. Therefore, all probable conformations of PA-(O 2 H)2 s were searched by taking into account all conformers of PA-O 2 Hs interacting with HO2, as found in the previous subsection. Through the above process, the generated PA-(O 2 H)2 s were selected as the pre-reactive of Reaction dand their corresponding TSs were found. Meanwhile, the possible TSs of Reaction dwere also searched by considering all conformers of hydroperoxy peptide intermediate (PA-O 2 Hs) attacked by HO2 directly from all probable directions. The found TSs were verified by tracing along the reaction pathway to find the related pre-reactive species. Finally, the lowest energy pathway among those we found were listed in Figure 5.
The structure of IN-d-PA, also a pre-reactive specie of Reaction d, has the terminal O of HO2 connected to the amino H and the H of HO2 close to the terminal O of the other HO2 bonded to Cα. Consistent with previous studies [38–41, 47, 48] about the reaction with HO2, its terminal O can serve as a HB acceptor and the H as a HB donor. These HB interactions stabilize the complex about 40.8 kJ mol-1 in gas phase. Via TS-d-PA, IN-d-PA can generate PA-O, O2 and H2O, with the energy barrier in gas phase and in aqueous phase of 150.8 and 121.4 kJ mol-1, respectively. Their corresponding rate constants are 1.56 × 10-13 and 2.20 × 10-8 s-1 M-1, respectively.
(f) The fragmentations of alkoxyl radical peptide intermediate (PA-O): Reaction e and f
The energy barriers, reaction energies and rate constants of the two fragmentation reactions in Reaction f as investigated in the current study, with energy in kJ mol-1 and rate constant in sec-1 mol-1
Bond to be fragmentated
1.05 × 107
5.06 × 107
7.5 × 10-10
1.62 × 10-10
(g) Reaction g: it is a generation of a hydroxyl derivative through an alkoxyl radical with HO2
Similar to Reaction c, we searched all possible PA-OOOHs, then tried to find the corresponding PA-OO(H)O and the TSs for the two corresponding H-migration based on Equation (5). Figure 7 lists the lowest energy pathway of Reaction gthat we have found. The association energy of IN1-g-PA to form the isolated PA-O and HO2, is 46.7 kJ mol-1 in gas phase. The terminal H of HO2 interacts with carbonyl O of backbone. Similarly, the first H-migration via TS1-g-PA is the rate determining step and the second H-migration is almost barrierless since the relative energy of TS2-g-PA is lower than that of IN2-g-PA. Therefore, only the first H-migration from IN1-g-PA to IN2-g-PA via TS1-g-PA was considered to represent Reaction g. And, the energy barriers were found to be 127.6 kJ mol-1 in gas phase and 131.4 kJ mol-1 in aqueous phase, respectively. Their corresponding rate constants in were 7.50 × 10-10 and 1.62 × 10-10 s-1 M-1, respectively.
(h) The overview from reaction a to reaction g
The energy barriers, reaction energies and rate constants of the oxidation reactions for the simple alanine peptide as investigated in the current study, with energy in kJ mol-1 and rate constant in sec-1 mol-1
4.38 × 107
2.24 × 107
5.38 × 10-22
1.09 × 10-16
1.56 × 10-13
2.20 × 10-8
1.05 × 107
5.06 × 106
7.50 × 10-10
1.62 × 10-10
1.46 × 10-10
8.19 × 10-8
Theoretical O-base oxidation in protein backbone was performed, using an alanine peptide as a model, and focused on the peptide backbone. The solvent participating in oxidation procedure was not considering this study, however, continuum model was used to estimate the influence of the aqueous phase. Several important features were found as shown in the following. Most of the oxidation reactions in this alanine peptide are exothermic, except for the breakage of the Cα-N bond from hydroperoxy alanine peptide radical. The OH α-H abstraction is the easiest step and the generation of alkylperoxy peptide radical is the most difficult one. The aqueous environment facilitates the oxidation processes, except for the fragmentations of alkoxyl alanine peptide radical. The Cα-Cβ bond of the alkoxyl alanine peptide radical is more labile than the peptide bond. Generating a hydroxyl alanine peptide derivative from the alkoxyl alanine peptide radical is feasible. The Cα-Cβ fragmentation takes place easily and causes large structural deformation by yielding alkoxyl peptide radical. Therefore, the rate determining step of oxidation in protein backbones is the generation of hydroperoxy peptide radical via the HO2 addition reaction to form the alkylperoxy peptide radical. The stabilities of alkylperoxy peptide radical and the alkylperoxy peptide radical and HO2 complex are important factors that influence the reaction rate.
The authors thank the National Science Council and Academia Sinica in Taiwan for their financial support. The computer center of Academia Sinica and National Center for High-Performance Computing are acknowledged for providing computational resources.
- Stadtman ER: Protein oxidation and aging. Science. 1992, 257: 1220-10.1126/science.1355616.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Berlett BS, Stadtman ER: Protein oxidation in aging, disease, and oxidative stress. J Biol Chem. 1997, 272: 20313-10.1074/jbc.272.33.20313.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Stadtman ER: Importance of individuality in oxidative stress and aging 1, 2. Free Radic Biol Med. 2002, 33: 597-604. 10.1016/S0891-5849(02)00904-8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Stadtman E, Levine R: Free radical-mediated oxidation of free amino acids and amino acid residues in proteins. Amino acids. 2003, 25: 207-218. 10.1007/s00726-003-0011-2.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Garrison WM: Reaction mechanisms in the radiolysis of peptides, polypeptides, and proteins. Chem Rev. 1987, 87: 381-398. 10.1021/cr00078a006.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Smith MA, Sayre LM, Monnier VM, Perry G: Radical AGEing in Alzheimer's disease. Trends Neurosci. 1995, 18: 172-176. 10.1016/0166-2236(95)93897-7.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Remmen HV, Richardson A: Oxidative damage to mitochondria and aging. Exp Gerontol. 2001, 36: 957-968. 10.1016/S0531-5565(01)00093-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hawkins CL, Davies MJ: Generation and propagation of radical reactions on proteins. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Bioenergetics. 2001, 1504: 196-219. 10.1016/S0005-2728(00)00252-8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Davies MJ: The oxidative environment and protein damage. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-Proteins & Proteomics. 2005, 1703: 93-109. 10.1016/j.bbapap.2004.08.007.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mariani E, Polidori M, Cherubini A, Mecocci P: Oxidative stress in brain aging, neurodegenerative and vascular diseases: an overview. J Chromatogr B. 2005, 827: 65-75. 10.1016/j.jchromb.2005.04.023.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Brennan ML, Hazen S: Amino acid and protein oxidation in cardiovascular disease. Amino acids. 2003, 25: 365-374. 10.1007/s00726-003-0023-y.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lin MT, Flint Beal M: The oxidative damage theory of aging. Clin Neurosci Res. 2003, 2: 305-315. 10.1016/S1566-2772(03)00007-0.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Armstrong D, Yu D, Rauk A: Oxidative damage to the glycyl α-carbon site in proteins: an ab initio study of the CH bond dissociation energy and the reduction potential of the C-centered radical. Can J Chem. 1996, 74: 1192-1199. 10.1139/v96-134.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rauk A, Yu D, Armstrong DA: Toward Site Specificity of Oxidative Damage in Proteins: C - H and C - C Bond Dissociation Energies and Reduction Potentials of the Radicals of Alanine, Serine, and Threonine ResiduesAn ab Initio Study. J Am Chem Soc. 1997, 119: 208-217. 10.1021/ja9618210.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Block D, Yu D, Armstrong D, Rauk A: On the influence of secondary structure on the α-C → H bond dissociation energy of proline residues in proteins: a theoretical study. Can J Chem. 1998, 76: 1042-1049.Google Scholar
- Jonsson M, Wayner DDM, Armstrong DA, Yu D, Rauk A: On the thermodynamics of peptide oxidation: anhydrides of glycine and alanine1. Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 2. 1998, 1967-1972.Google Scholar
- Rauk A, Yu D, Armstrong D: Oxidative damage to and by cysteine in proteins: An ab initio study of the radical structures, CH, SH, and CC bond dissociation energies, and transition structures for H abstraction by thiyl radicals. J Am Chem Soc. 1998, 120: 8848-8855. 10.1021/ja9807789.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rauk A, Yu D, Taylor J, Shustov G, Block D, Armstrong D: Effects of structure onα-C → H bond enthalpies of amino acid residues: relevance to H transfers in enzyme mechanisms and in protein oxidation. Biochemistry. 1999, 38: 9089-9096. 10.1021/bi990249x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rauk A, Armstrong DA: Influence of α-Sheet Structure on the Susceptibility of Proteins to Backbone Oxidative Damage: Preference for £\C-Centered Radical Formation at Glycine Residues of Antiparallel £]-Sheets. J Am Chem Soc. 2000, 122: 4185-4192. 10.1021/ja9939688.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rauk A, Armstrong DA, Fairlie DP: Is Oxidative Damage by α-Amyloid and Prion Peptides Mediated by Hydrogen Atom Transfer from Glycine £\-Carbon to Methionine Sulfur within α-Sheets?. J Am Chem Soc. 2000, 122: 9761-9767. 10.1021/ja994436u.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lu H-F, Li F-Y, Lin SH: Site specificity of α-H abstraction reaction among secondary structure motif--An ab initio study. J Comput Chem. 2007, 28: 783-794. 10.1002/jcc.20605.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Owen MC, Viskolcz B, Csizmadia IG: Quantum chemical analysis of the unfolding of a penta-glycyl 3[sub 10]-helix initiated by HO[sup [bullet]], HO[sub 2][sup [bullet]], and O[sub 2][sup - [bullet]. J Chem Phys. 2011, 135: 035101-035109. 10.1063/1.3608168.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Owen MC, Viskolcz B, Csizmadia IG: Quantum Chemical Analysis of the Unfolding of a Penta-alanyl 310-Helix Initiated by HO•, HO2• and O2-•. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B. 2011, 115: 8014-8023. 10.1021/jp202345p.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Galano A, Alvarez-Idaboy JR, Montero LA, Vivier-Bunge A: OH hydrogen abstraction reactions from alanine and glycine: A quantum mechanical approach. J Comput Chem. 2001, 22: 1138-1153. 10.1002/jcc.1073.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Galano A, Alvarez-Idaboy JR, Bravo-Pérez G, Ruiz-Santoyo ME: Mechanism and rate coefficients of the gas phase OH hydrogen abstraction reaction from asparagine: a quantum mechanical approach. J Mol Struct (THEOCHEM). 2002, 617: 77-86. 10.1016/S0166-1280(02)00388-3.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Galano A, Alvarez Idaboy JR, Cruz Torres A, Ruiz Santoyo M: Kinetics and mechanism of the gas phase OH hydrogen abstraction reaction from methionine: A quantum mechanical approach. Int J Chem Kinet. 2003, 35: 212-221. 10.1002/kin.10117.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Galano A, Alvarez-Idaboy JR, Cruz-Torres A, Ruiz-Santoyo ME: Rate coefficients and mechanism of the gas phase OH hydrogen abstraction reaction from serine: a quantum mechanical approach. J Mol Struct (THEOCHEM). 2003, 629: 165-174. 10.1016/S0166-1280(03)00140-4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Galano A, Alvarez-Idaboy JR, Agacino-Valdés E, Ruiz-Santoyo ME: Quantum mechanical approach to isoleucine+OH gas phase reaction. Mechanism and kinetics. J Mol Struct (THEOCHEM). 2004, 676: 97-103. 10.1016/j.theochem.2004.03.004.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Huang ML, Rauk A: Structure and reactions of the peroxy radicals of glycine and alanine in peptides: an ab initio study. J Phys Org Chem. 2004, 17: 777-786. 10.1002/poc.794.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wood GPF, Rauk A, Radom L: Modeling β-Scission Reactions of Peptide Backbone Alkoxy Radicals: Backbone C - C Bond Fission. Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation. 2005, 1: 889-899. 10.1021/ct050133g.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhu R, Lin M: The CH3+ HO2 reaction: First-principles prediction of its rate constant and product branching probabilities. J Phys Chem A. 2001, 105: 6243-6248. 10.1021/jp010698i.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Takano Y, Houk K: Benchmarking the conductor-like polarizable continuum model (CPCM) for aqueous solvation free energies of neutral and ionic organic molecules. Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation. 2005, 1: 70-77. 10.1021/ct049977a.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ingold KU: Peroxy radicals. Accounts of Chemical Research. 1969, 2: 1-9. 10.1021/ar50013a001.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Porter NA: Mechanisms for the autoxidation of polyunsaturated lipids. Accounts of Chemical Research. 1986, 19: 262-268. 10.1021/ar00129a001.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bowry VW, Ingold K: The Unexpected Role of Vitamin E (α-Tocopherol) in the Peroxidation of Human Low-Density Lipoprotein 1. Accounts of Chemical Research. 1999, 32: 27-34. 10.1021/ar950059o.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tallman KA, Pratt DA, Porter NA: Kinetic Products of Linoleate Peroxidation: Rapid β-Fragmentation of Nonconjugated Peroxyls. J Am Chem Soc. 2001, 123: 11827-11828. 10.1021/ja0169724.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pratt DA, Porter NA: Role of Hyperconjugation in Determining Carbon - Oxygen Bond Dissociation Enthalpies in Alkylperoxyl Radicals. Org Lett. 2003, 5: 387-390. 10.1021/ol027094x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jackels CF, Phillips DH: An ab initio investigation of possible intermediates in the reaction of the hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals. J Chem Phys. 1986, 84: 5013-10.1063/1.450650.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Parreira RLT, Galembeck SE: Characterization of Hydrogen Bonds in the Interactions between the Hydroperoxyl Radical and Organic Acids. J Am Chem Soc. 2003, 125: 15614-15622. 10.1021/ja036846v.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fitzgerald G: The cyclic, two-hydrogen bond form of the HO2 dimer. J Chem Phys. 1984, 81: 362-10.1063/1.447314.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fitzgerald G: The open chain or chemically bonded structure of H2O4: The hydroperoxyl radical dimer. J Chem Phys. 1985, 83: 6275-10.1063/1.449577.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gaussian 03 RC, Frisch MJ, Trucks GW, Schlegel HB, Scuseria GE, Robb MA, Cheeseman JR, Montgomery JA, Vreven T, Kudin KN, Burant JC, Millam JM, Iyengar SS, Tomasi J, Barone V, Mennucci B, Cossi M, Scalmani G, Rega N, Petersson GA, Nakatsuji H, Hada M, Ehara M, Toyota K, Fukuda R, Hasegawa J, Ishida M, Nakajima T, Honda Y, Kitao O, Nakai H, Klene M, Li X, Knox JE, Hratchian HP, Cross JB, Bakken V, Adamo C, Jaramillo J, Gomperts R, Stratmann RE, Yazyev O, Austin AJ, Cammi R, Pomelli C, Ochterski JW, Ayala PY, Morokuma K, Voth GA, Salvador P, Dannenberg JJ, Zakrzewski VG, Dapprich S, Daniels AD, Strain MC, Farkas O, Malick DK, Rabuck AD, Raghavachari K, Foresman JB, Ortiz JV, Cui Q, Baboul AG, Clifford S, Cioslowski J, Stefanov BB, Liu G, Liashenko A, Piskorz P, Komaromi I, Martin RL, Fox DJ, Keith T, Al-Laham MA, Peng CY, Nanayakkara A, Challacombe M, Gill PMW, Johnson B, Chen W, Wong MW, Gonzalez C, Pople JA: 2004, Gaussian, Inc., Wallingford CT
- Rao PS, Hayon E: Reaction of hydroxyl radicals with oligopeptides in aqueous solutions. Pulse radiolysis study. J Phys Chem. 1975, 79: 109-115. 10.1021/j100569a004.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hayon E, Simic M: Pulse radiolysis study of cyclic peptides in aqueous solution. Absorption spectrum of the peptide radical -NHCHCO. J Am Chem Soc. 1971, 93: 6781-6786. 10.1021/ja00754a013.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hou H, Wang B: A Systematic Computational Study on the Reactions of HO2 with RO2: The HO2 + CH3O2(CD3O2) and HO2 + CH2FO2 Reactions. J Phys Chem A. 2004, 109: 451-460.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hou H, Li J, Song X, Wang B: A Systematic Computational Study of the Reactions of HO2 with RO2: The HO2 + C2H5O2 Reaction. J Phys Chem A. 2005, 109: 11206-11212. 10.1021/jp0550098.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Aloisio S, Francisco JS: Complexes of Hydroperoxyl Radical with Glyoxal, Methylglyoxal, Methylvinyl Ketone, Acrolein, and Methacrolein: Possible New Sinks for HO2 in the Atmosphere?. J Phys Chem A. 2003, 107: 2492-2496. 10.1021/jp022636d.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shi Q, Belair SD, Francisco JS, Kais S: On the interactions between atmospheric radicals and cloud droplets: A molecular picture of the interface. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2003, 100: 9686-10.1073/pnas.1733696100.View ArticleGoogle Scholar