Correction: Determination of metal ion content of beverages and estimation of target hazard quotients: a comparative study

  • Theresa Hague1,

    Affiliated with

    • Andrea Petroczi1,

      Affiliated with

      • Paul LR Andrews2,

        Affiliated with

        • James Barker3 and

          Affiliated with

          • Declan P Naughton1Email author

            Affiliated with

            Chemistry Central Journal20104:2

            DOI: 10.1186/1752-153X-4-2

            Received: 15 January 2010

            Accepted: 1 February 2010

            Published: 1 February 2010

            Abstract

            This is a correction to the following paper: Hague T, Petroczi A, Andrews PR, Barker J, Naughton DP: Determination of metal ion content of beverages and estimation of target hazard quotients: a comparative study. Chem Central J 2008, 2:13.

            Correction

            During preparation of a subsequent paper, we observed a computational error in the Target Hazard Quotients (THQ) listed in this work which have been inadvertently overestimated [1]. The overall results and conclusion of our paper with the corrected figures have remained valid. Corrections for Figures three, four and five; and Additional file three are given below in tabular form. The correct values with EFr = 365 days, EDtot-male = 63.9 years and EDtot-female = 66.7 years; BWmale = 83.11 kg, BWfemale = 69.81 kg, AT = 6 years and 30 years (non-carcinogenic) are shown in Tables 3 and 4. In keeping with the conclusion published, THQ values of apple juice and stout have remained below 1 (Tables 1 and 2), whereas the combined THQ values for red wine (both intact and ultrafiltered) have exceeded the cutoff value of 1, mainly owing to high V values (Tables 3 and 4). Although in keeping with the literature, THQ values were calculated for AT = 30 years, given the effect metals are assumed to have on health and delayed onset, AT is likely to be below 30 years.
            Table 1

            Corrected THQ values for apple juice and stout (AT = 6 years)

            Metal

            THQ apple juice (male)

            THQ apple juice (female)

            THQ stout (male)

            THQ Stout (female)

            V

            0.0092

            0.0114

            0.0365

            0.0434

            Cr *

            0.0046

            0.0057

            0.0039

            0.0046

            Mn *

            0.0690

            0.0858

            0.0278

            0.0331

            Ni

            0.0103

            0.0128

            0.0006

            0.0007

            Cu

            0.0313

            0.0389

            0.0089

            0.0106

            Zn

            0.0111

            0.0138

            0.0025

            0.0030

            Pb

            0.0000

            0.0000

            0.0000

            0.0000

            Σ

            0.1355

            0.1684

            0.0802

            0.0955

            * above working range

            Table 2

            Corrected THQ values for apple juice and stout (AT = 30 years)

            Metal

            THQ apple juice (male)

            THQ apple juice (female)

            THQ stout (male)

            THQ Stout (female)

            V

            0.0018

            0.0023

            0.0073

            0.0087

            Cr *

            0.0009

            0.0011

            0.0008

            0.0009

            Mn *

            0.0138

            0.0172

            0.0056

            0.0066

            Ni

            0.0021

            0.0026

            0.0001

            0.0001

            Cu

            0.0063

            0.0078

            0.0018

            0.0021

            Zn

            0.0022

            0.0028

            0.0005

            0.0006

            Pb

            0.0000

            0.0000

            0.0000

            0.0000

            Σ

            0.0271

            0.0337

            0.0160

            0.0191

            * above working range

            Table 3

            Corrected THQ values for intact and ultrafiltered red wine (AT = 6 years)

            Metal

            THQ intact (male)

            THQ Intact (female)

            THQ ultrafiltered (male)

            THQ ultrafiltered (female)

            V

            4.5114

            5.6063

            4.0552

            5.0393

            Cr *

            0.0213

            0.0265

            0.0241

            0.0300

            Mn *

            0.5620

            0.6984

            0.5454

            0.6778

            Ni

            0.0496

            0.0617

            0.0422

            0.0525

            Cu

            0.2429

            0.3018

            0.0189

            0.0234

            Zn

            0.1250

            0.1553

            0.1258

            0.1564

            Pb

            0.0001

            0.0002

            0.0000

            0.0000

            Σ

            5.5125

            6.8502

            4.8117

            5.9794

            * above working range

            Table 4

            Corrected THQ values for intact and ultrafiltered red wine (AT = 30 years)

            Metal

            THQ intact (male)

            THQ Intact (female)

            THQ ultrafiltered (male)

            THQ ultrafiltered (female)

            V

            0.9023

            1.1213

            0.8110

            1.0079

            Cr *

            0.0043

            0.0053

            0.0048

            0.0060

            Mn *

            0.1124

            0.1397

            0.1091

            0.1356

            Ni

            0.0099

            0.0123

            0.0084

            0.0105

            Cu

            0.0486

            0.0604

            0.0038

            0.0047

            Zn

            0.0250

            0.0311

            0.0252

            0.0313

            Pb

            0.0000

            0.0000

            0.0000

            0.0000

            Σ

            1.1025

            1.3700

            0.9623

            1.1959

            * above working range

            As noted in the paper, the THQ values calculated are concerning in that they are mainly above the safe level of THQ ≤ 1, which premise holds for the wine with the adjusted THQ values. It must be emphasized that the THQ value is to be judged as either below or above 1, where any value above 1 is a cause for health concern. It is notable that
            1. i)

              choices in value input into averaging time (AT)

               
            2. ii)

              uncertainty factor regarding the oral reference dose (RfD)

               
            3. iii)

              bioavailability can have significant effect on the THQ value. The THQ is designed to be a conservative estimate.

               
            However, further research is required in order to provide guidance on appropriate value choices.

            Declarations

            Authors’ Affiliations

            (1)
            School of Life Sciences, Kingston University
            (2)
            Division of Basic Medical Sciences, St George's University of London
            (3)
            School of Pharmacy and Chemistry, Kingston University

            References

            1. Hague T, Petroczi A, Andrews PR, Barker J, Naughton DP: Determination of metal ion content of beverages and estimation of target hazard quotients: a comparative study. Chem Central J 2008, 2:13.View Article

            Copyright

            © Hague et al 2010