Open Access

Erratum to: Determination of metal ion content of beverages and estimation of target hazard quotients: a comparative study

  • Theresa Hague1,
  • Andrea Petroczi1,
  • Paul LR Andrews2,
  • James Barker3 and
  • Declan P Naughton1Email author
Chemistry Central Journal20104:2

DOI: 10.1186/1752-153X-4-2

Received: 15 January 2010

Accepted: 1 February 2010

Published: 1 February 2010

The original article was published in Chemistry Central Journal 2008 2:13

Abstract

This is a correction to the following paper: Hague T, Petroczi A, Andrews PR, Barker J, Naughton DP: Determination of metal ion content of beverages and estimation of target hazard quotients: a comparative study. Chem Central J 2008, 2:13.

Correction

During preparation of a subsequent paper, we observed a computational error in the Target Hazard Quotients (THQ) listed in this work which have been inadvertently overestimated [1]. The overall results and conclusion of our paper with the corrected figures have remained valid. Corrections for Figures three, four and five; and Additional file three are given below in tabular form. The correct values with EFr = 365 days, EDtot-male = 63.9 years and EDtot-female = 66.7 years; BWmale = 83.11 kg, BWfemale = 69.81 kg, AT = 6 years and 30 years (non-carcinogenic) are shown in Tables 3 and 4. In keeping with the conclusion published, THQ values of apple juice and stout have remained below 1 (Tables 1 and 2), whereas the combined THQ values for red wine (both intact and ultrafiltered) have exceeded the cutoff value of 1, mainly owing to high V values (Tables 3 and 4). Although in keeping with the literature, THQ values were calculated for AT = 30 years, given the effect metals are assumed to have on health and delayed onset, AT is likely to be below 30 years.
Table 1

Corrected THQ values for apple juice and stout (AT = 6 years)

Metal

THQ apple juice (male)

THQ apple juice (female)

THQ stout (male)

THQ Stout (female)

V

0.0092

0.0114

0.0365

0.0434

Cr *

0.0046

0.0057

0.0039

0.0046

Mn *

0.0690

0.0858

0.0278

0.0331

Ni

0.0103

0.0128

0.0006

0.0007

Cu

0.0313

0.0389

0.0089

0.0106

Zn

0.0111

0.0138

0.0025

0.0030

Pb

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

Σ

0.1355

0.1684

0.0802

0.0955

* above working range

Table 2

Corrected THQ values for apple juice and stout (AT = 30 years)

Metal

THQ apple juice (male)

THQ apple juice (female)

THQ stout (male)

THQ Stout (female)

V

0.0018

0.0023

0.0073

0.0087

Cr *

0.0009

0.0011

0.0008

0.0009

Mn *

0.0138

0.0172

0.0056

0.0066

Ni

0.0021

0.0026

0.0001

0.0001

Cu

0.0063

0.0078

0.0018

0.0021

Zn

0.0022

0.0028

0.0005

0.0006

Pb

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

Σ

0.0271

0.0337

0.0160

0.0191

* above working range

Table 3

Corrected THQ values for intact and ultrafiltered red wine (AT = 6 years)

Metal

THQ intact (male)

THQ Intact (female)

THQ ultrafiltered (male)

THQ ultrafiltered (female)

V

4.5114

5.6063

4.0552

5.0393

Cr *

0.0213

0.0265

0.0241

0.0300

Mn *

0.5620

0.6984

0.5454

0.6778

Ni

0.0496

0.0617

0.0422

0.0525

Cu

0.2429

0.3018

0.0189

0.0234

Zn

0.1250

0.1553

0.1258

0.1564

Pb

0.0001

0.0002

0.0000

0.0000

Σ

5.5125

6.8502

4.8117

5.9794

* above working range

Table 4

Corrected THQ values for intact and ultrafiltered red wine (AT = 30 years)

Metal

THQ intact (male)

THQ Intact (female)

THQ ultrafiltered (male)

THQ ultrafiltered (female)

V

0.9023

1.1213

0.8110

1.0079

Cr *

0.0043

0.0053

0.0048

0.0060

Mn *

0.1124

0.1397

0.1091

0.1356

Ni

0.0099

0.0123

0.0084

0.0105

Cu

0.0486

0.0604

0.0038

0.0047

Zn

0.0250

0.0311

0.0252

0.0313

Pb

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

0.0000

Σ

1.1025

1.3700

0.9623

1.1959

* above working range

As noted in the paper, the THQ values calculated are concerning in that they are mainly above the safe level of THQ ≤ 1, which premise holds for the wine with the adjusted THQ values. It must be emphasized that the THQ value is to be judged as either below or above 1, where any value above 1 is a cause for health concern. It is notable that i) choices in value input into averaging time (AT), ii) uncertainty factor regarding the oral reference dose (RfD) and iii) bioavailability can have significant effect on the THQ value. The THQ is designed to be a conservative estimate. However, further research is required in order to provide guidance on appropriate value choices.

Notes

Declarations

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
School of Life Sciences, Kingston University
(2)
Division of Basic Medical Sciences, St George's University of London
(3)
School of Pharmacy and Chemistry, Kingston University

References

  1. Hague T, Petroczi A, Andrews PR, Barker J, Naughton DP: Determination of metal ion content of beverages and estimation of target hazard quotients: a comparative study. Chem Central J. 2008, 2: 13-10.1186/1752-153X-2-13.View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© Hague et al 2010