Open Access

Erratum to: Heavy metal ions in wines: meta-analysis of target hazard quotients reveal health risks

Chemistry Central Journal20093:6

DOI: 10.1186/1752-153X-3-6

Received: 3 March 2009

Accepted: 19 March 2009

Published: 19 March 2009

The original article was published in Chemistry Central Journal 2008 2:22

Abstract

Correction to Naughton DP, Petroczi A: Heavy metal ions in wines: meta-analysis of target hazard quotients reveals health risks. Chem Central J 2008, 2:22.

Correction

During preparation of a subsequent paper, we observed a computational error in the Target Hazard Quotients (THQ) listed in this work which have been inadvertently overestimated [1]. The overall results and conclusion of our paper with the corrected figures have remained valid. Corrections for Figures Four, Five and Six are given below in tabular form. The correct values with EFr = 365 days, EDtot-male = 63.9 years and EDtot-female = 66.7 years; BWmale = 83.11 kg, BWfemale = 69.81 kg, AT = 6 years and 30 years (non-carcinogenic) are shown in Tables 1 and 2 (For Fig Four); and Tables 3 and 4 (for Figs Five and Six). Although in keeping with the literature, THQ values were calculated for AT = 30 years, given the effect metals are assumed to have on health and delayed onset, AT is likely to be below 30 years. As noted in the paper, the THQ values calculated are concerning in that they are mainly above the safe level of THQ ≤ 1, which premise holds for many cases with the adjusted THQ values. It must be emphasized that the THQ value is to be judged as either below or above 1, where any value above 1 is a cause for health concern. It is notable that i) choices in value input into averaging time (AT), ii) uncertainty factor regarding the oral reference dose (RfD) and iii) bioavailability can have significant effect on the THQ value. The THQ is designed to be a conservative estimate. However, further research is required in order to provide guidance on appropriate value choices.
Table 1

corrected combined THQ values for countries (AT = 6 years)

Country

SUM Male

min

SUM Male max

SUM Female min

SUM Female max

Argentinean

0.021624

0.038379

0.026872

0.047693

Australian

0.080282

0.359869

0.099765

0.447204

Austrian

2.243322

5.447014

2.787739

6.768916

Brazilian

0.000192

0.001068

0.000239

0.001327

Czech

0.705472

2.476704

0.876679

3.077760

French

2.114068

8.136375

2.627117

10.11094

German

0.483296

5.512977

0.600584

6.850887

Greek

0.192215

3.015917

0.238863

3.747830

Hungarian

0.535830

14.63428

0.647560

17.45348

Italian

0.000491

0.000726

0.000610

0.000902

Jordanian

0.040045

2.405039

0.049763

2.988702

Macedonian

0

1.441614

0

1.791470

Portuguese

3.524521

5.126613

4.379865

6.370758

Serbian

0.221963

1.438181

0.275829

1.787204

Slovakian

0.000128

12.81552

0.000159

15.92563

Spanish

0.864379

5.742503

1.074150

7.136116

Table 2

corrected combined THQ values for countries (AT = 30 years)

Country

SUM Male

min

SUM Male max

SUM Female min

SUM Female max

Argentinean

0.004325

0.007676

0.005374

0.009539

Australian

0.016056

0.071974

0.019953

0.089441

Austrian

0.448664

1.089403

0.557548

1.353783

Brazilian

0.000038

0.000214

0.000048

0.000265

Czech

0.141094

0.495341

0.175336

0.615552

French

0.422814

1.627275

0.525423

2.022188

German

0.096659

1.102595

0.120117

1.370177

Greek

0.038443

0.603183

0.047773

0.749566

Hungarian

0.107166

2.926856

0.129512

3.490697

Italian

0.000098

0.000145

0.000122

0.000180

Jordanian

0.008009

0.481008

0.009953

0.597740

Macedonian

0.000000

0.288323

0.000000

0.358294

Portuguese

0.704904

1.025323

0.875973

1.274152

Serbian

0.044393

0.287636

0.055166

0.357441

Slovakian

0.000026

2.563103

0.000032

3.185127

Spanish

0.172876

1.148501

0.214830

1.427223

Table 3

Corrected mean THQ values for individual metals comparing red and white wines (AT = 6 years)

 

Portuguese Red

Portuguese White

Czech

Red

Czech

White

V (male)

0.775268

1.890116

2.082331

2.386671

V (female)

0.963413

2.348816

2.587678

2.965878

Mn (male)

0.201139

0.237065

0.230353

0.179058

Mn (female)

0.249953

0.294597

0.286256

0.222512

Ni (male)

0.029153

0.039244

0.061402

0.043649

Ni (female)

0.036227

0.048768

0.076303

0.054242

Zn (male)

0.068557

0.070586

0.078310

0.046986

Zn (female)

0.085194

0.087716

0.097314

0.058389

Cu (male)

0.189812

0.039244

0.140157

0.122137

Cu (female)

0.235877

0.048768

0.174171

0.151777

Cr (male)

0.000562

0.000699

  

Cr (female)

0.000518

0.000644

  

Pb (male)

0.000410

0.000308

0.000342

0.000667

Pb (female)

0.000510

0.000383

0.000425

0.000829

Table 4

Corrected mean THQ values for individual metals comparing red and white wines (AT = 30 years)

 

Portuguese Red

Portuguese White

Czech

Red

Czech

White

V (male)

0.155054

0.378023

0.416466

0.477334

V (female)

0.192683

0.469763

0.517536

0.593176

Mn (male)

0.040228

0.047413

0.046071

0.035812

Mn (female)

0.049991

0.058919

0.057251

0.044502

Ni (male)

0.005831

0.007849

0.012280

0.008730

Ni (female)

0.007245

0.009754

0.015261

0.010848

Zn (male)

0.013711

0.014117

0.015662

0.009397

Zn (female)

0.017039

0.017543

0.019463

0.011678

Cu (male)

0.037962

0.007849

0.028031

0.024427

Cu (female)

0.047175

0.009754

0.034834

0.030355

Cr (male)

0.000112

0.000104

  

Cr (female)

0.000140

0.000129

  

Pb (male)

0.000082

0.000062

0.000068

0.000133

Pb (female)

0.000102

0.000077

0.000085

0.000166

Notes

Declarations

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
School of Life Sciences, Kingston University

References

  1. Naughton DP, Petroczi A: Heavy metal ions in wines: meta-analysis of target hazard quotients reveals health risks. Chem Central J. 2008, 2: 22-10.1186/1752-153X-2-22.View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© Naughton et al 2009